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14 托马斯汤森布朗 Thomas Townsend BROWN的反重力实验

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发表于 2017-6-28 09:13:39 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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Page 60
29. Conservation of Momentum and the Change of Velocity with Change in Inertial Mass
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956
Basic considerations:

As mi increases, V must decrease, and vice versa.

If V is given, Rotation results is irradiation is maintained on one side of a photo-sensitive material.

If rotation is given, V results under same circumstances.
And the three factors are related in an equilibrium depending upon al three.

Torque such that mi increasing resists V, and falls behind.

Stable position.
Page 61
30. Detection of Absolute Motion by Means of Modulated Inertial Mass
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
Postulate:
A force vector becomes apparent (1) in the direction of absolute motion whenever mi is decreased, and (2) away from the direction of motion whenever mi is increased.
The tendency is to conserve momentum.
Experiment:

When an alternating emf is employed (at a frequency synchronous with period of pendulum), the system will swing in an alignment with direction of absolute motion.
Witnessed this 18th of Feb 1956.
Helen Brasufort
Josephine B. Brown
Page 62
31. Electrogravitic Radio Using Photoisotopic Cells.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 18, 1956
An improvement over the use of highly conducting metals as antennae (see pat. Appl. On subject) appears to present itself in the photoisotopic cell (See Sec. 12).
In Sec. 29 and 30, the effect of changing inertial mass was set forth. This is in accord with the law of conservation of momentum. This calls for a change in velocity according to the equation for kinetic energy E = ½ mV2.
Hence, for a given momentum
m || V2  or  mi || V2
m being inertial mass as distinguished from gravitational mass (mg).
Any modulating inertial mass (mi) must exert a force during the time of change tending to increase or decrease its absolute velocity. As stated in Sec. 30, the direction of this force must be toward or away from the exact direction of its absolute motion (in space).
Hence, if an antenna (of an electro-gravitic radio transmitter) is electrically or photo-isotopically modulated, it will tend to vibrate mechanically in the alignment of its absolute motion.
Page 63
Conversely, one may look for the generation of an alternating potential if such a mass is vibrated in the alignment of its absolute motion (in space).
Since the velocity enters the equation with /as an experiment, it is possible that the voltage may turn out to be a function of the absolute velocity, but this will be discussed in a later chapter.
In any case, the use of photoisotope cells in electrogravitic radio transmitters is indicated. A fundamental circuit is as follows:

Transmitter >> gravitational radiation >> receiver

A transmitting antenna using a multiplicity of photoisotopic cells for modulating mi.
Page 64
32. A Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or Generator Using a "Velocity" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 19, 1956
In the foregoing chapters, it was pointed out that the rapid modulation of inertial mass would cause mechanical forces resulting in vibration. The direction of the principal vibration would be parallel to the absolute motion of the mass.

Therefore, if a rotating system were synchronously excited (phased in with the rotation),

In this case, rotation would be impeded.
If turning clockwise, rotation would be assisted, and system would operate as a motor.
Case No. 2

Stable position. Same as Sec. 29, Fig. 5.
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Page 1
Notes & Ideas
This is to be the first of a series of record books of notes and ideas, of greater or lesser importance, just as they occur to me. The pages are numbered and the subject reference will be given in an index. Where it appears of importance at the moment, the entries will be witnessed.
All of my life, it seems, I have jotted down notes on paper napkins and the like, which have ultimately been lost or destroyed. In many cases, these original notes and the dates of conception have turned out to be important and the loss of the record has been a serious handicap.
In the main, the ideas recorded herein and the hypotheses developed from these ideas will relate to the subject of gravitation and the relationships between gravitation and electrodynamics. They may present from time to time certain seemingly practical applications which may be patentable. All entries therefore are dated.
Thomas Townsend Brown
Leesburg, VA; October 1, 1955
________________________________________
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1. A Review of the Situation regarding Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg VA, Oct. 7, 1955
(a) An announcement has been made both in the newspapers and on the radio (within the last few days) that the contract for the launching gear of the proposed space satellite has been awarded the Glenn S. Martin Co and the contract for the rocket motor to General Electric.
This brings to mind the statement of M. K. Jessup in "The Case for the UFO" --- "If the money, thought, time and energy now being poured uselessly into the development of rocket propulsion were invested in a basic study of gravitation, it is altogether likely that we could have effective and economical space travel, at a small fraction of the ultimate cost which we are now incurring, within one decade".
As to a study of gravitation, there are two phases --- (a) the dynamic and (b) the static. In dynamic considerations, electrical energy causes a local distortion in the gravitational field which results in the generation of a ponderomotive force and motion results. In the static considerations, an electric situation exists which causes matter to be lighter (or heavier) than it normally should be.
Page 4
In nature, matter has gravitational susceptibility, that is --- it is acted upon and responds to a gravitational field. This is expressed as gravitational mass, and bears no direct relationship to the inertial mass or reluctance to acceleration. The measure of gravitational mass is specific gravity.
A study of the specific gravity of the elements reveals that, in many instances, a wide range of values are observed for the same element. Even where the chemical purity of the element is uniform a change or range of specific gravity values appears commonplace.
It is my hypothesis that all elements are composed of lighter and heavier isotopes (values of specific gravity) which differ from the mean value of the composition as a whole. Where the lighter fractions predominate, the mean value of specific gravity is less than normal. It may be said to have a predominance of negative gravitational isotopes. Where the mean values are greater than normal, the composition may be said to have a predominance of positive gravitational isotopes. No element appears to be completely "normal" or free from this effect.
For any given element, there probably exists (and this remains to be shown) a reciprocal relationship between the gravitational mass and the inertial mass.
Page 5
Heavier gravitational isotopes of the element possess less inertial mass --- and vice versa. The product of the two forms of mass probably equal a constant.
mg mi = E.
The energy relationships probably are unstable, the tendency being to reach an equilibrium condition of equality.
mg  = mi
The spontaneous evolution of heat as observed by Brush and Harrington appears to be associated with light gravitational isotopes. This means excessive inertial mass, the energy of which is radiated and lost, and this in turn is the cause of decay of the anomalous gravitational effect.
For example, the rare earth group of elements appears to have strong negative anomalies --- that is, they are lighter than they should be. That they should also exhibit relatively high evolution of heat (spontaneously) follows. (This heating effect by rare earth elements remains to be discovered). Assuming that such is the case, the heating effect is present only where equilibrium has not been reached, and the temperature differential is quantitatively related to the abnormal lightness.
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Since energy (thermal) is released until equilibrium between Mg and Mi is realized, it is obvious that the effect is subject to the usual rate of decay, reaching zero asymptotically.
In the case of positive isotopes --- an absorption of that would be expected. Such absorption would cause the sample to be colder than its environment.
If the effect noted above is not actually present (and there is as yet no evidence of heat absorption), it is possible that positive isotopes as such do not exist and that the present indicated mean specific gravity is actually negative and that the true "normal" or base is at least as high as the heaviest value indicated.
Methods of beneficiation are the subject of current patent applications. Methods involve successive steps of settling and centrifuging. The separation is of the isotopes in the mixture, (a) the lighter weight and more massive fraction and (b) the heavier and less massive fraction respectively.
No information has come to light regarding the modus operand of the creation of the light gravitational isotopes in the first place. It has been assumed, as in the case of mass isotopes that they have been present since the creation of the physical world.
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2. Nascent Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg VA, Oct. 7, 1955.
The creation of light gravitational isotopes requires energy. Thermal energy is evolved during the decay of these isotopes, but it is probable that a greater source of energy than that available from heat is necessary for the creation of these lighter fractions. An exception may be taken, of course, to the high thermal energies present for example in the sun or during nuclear reactions.
Atomic piles provide energy through the fissioning of nuclei of the radioactive group to form nuclei of the rare earth group. These nascent isotopes may turn out to be a rich source --- produced in the same fashion as the rare earth elements were produced in the original creation (a primordial explosion).
One may speculate on other ways of creating gravitational isotopes, such as ---
(a) In targets receiving positive charges.
1. Hydrogen nuclei --- from cyclotrons or accelerators.
2. Hydrogen ions --- in electrolytic solutions.
3. Complex positive ions --- separation in semi-permeable membranes.
4. [ illegible, blurred photocopy ]
5. Cosmic ray showers.
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It is to be recorded here that C.F. Brush once performed some experiments producing what he termed super-light hydrogen. It is said that this was done by some sort of preferred selection of ions in or during the electrolysis of water.
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3. Increase in Weight and Density of Certain Rocks
Leesburg, VA, October 7, 1955.
There appears to be evidence, however tenuous and perhaps controversial, that a civilization existed on the earth 70,000 to 200,000 years ago. It may be said that this civilization had simple and effective ways of moving stone --- based on today’s standards.
In the high Andes of Peru --- the Sachahuaman Fortress --- stones weighing 200 tons each were fitted together so closely that a knife blade cannot be inserted between them.
Enormous stones --- 14’ x 17’ x 70’, weighing upwards to 1200 tons, were moved and placed in position in various parts of the world. Baalbek, Easter Island, as well as in Peru. (See "Case for the UFO" by Jessup). It has been suggested that some form of levitation employed by the ancients made possible the moving of these enormous stones.
I submit that the weight of these stones may have changed since they were quarried, that the change may have been rapid at first and then slowed down as the years passed.
To develop this hypothesis, the following is suggested:
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At some time between 70,000 and 200,000 years ago, a worldwide change occurred which created or recreated light gravitational isotopes. This could have been a sudden increase in the intensity of cosmic radiation or it could have been a close approach or contact with a comet.
The result nevertheless was a rapid and effective increase in the content of light gravitational isotopes in certain susceptible materials. This increase presumably was limited to certain clays and rocks. The resulting loss of weight caused tectonic forces and started mountain building processes.
The continent of Atlantis may have risen from the ocean during this period. During the height of this gravitational revolution, many materials were phenomenally light and could be transported with ease. Certain substances may have had negative gravitational mass and escaped from the earth. Structures to fly in the air may have been constructed from common materials by beneficiating from entrapping or loading materials.
Men turned with ease toward the quarrying of huge masses of stone simply because they were able to lift and move them. It is my hypothesis that the largest stones cold be carried by a relatively few men. They literally floated through the air, like huge logs floating on water. Their inertial mass, however, must have been enormous. When motionless they must have required great force to start them moving and, when in motion, they must have required equally great effort to stop them!
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This period of "lightness" must have lasted many centuries, because during that time a flourishing, highly developed human society evolved.
Decay of the light gravitational isotopes began when the factor causing their synthesis ceased to be operative. This decay, similar to radioactive decay, was very rapid at the start, diminishing in rate as the centuries passed.
It is presumed that unless synthesis is now operating or has been more or less regularly operating during the intervening time, decay of this original effect is still proceeding. The result then would be a continuing increase in the weight of these rocks.
During the first few centuries of weight "increase", great tectonic forces similar but opposite to those which originally created "Atlantis", now served to destroy it. Great loading due to the increase in weight of these specific rocks, together with isostatic flow, would have caused the sinking of the mythical continent.
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In brief, therefore, the disappearance of Atlantis may be related to and concurrent with the termination of quarrying operations of the huge stones. The same increase of weight, caused by the decay of light isotopes, caused by the decay of light isotopes, is the reason, so it seems.

As the weight of the monoliths, such as the Easter Island images, increased, their supporting foundations gave way and caused them to fall. Most of these images have fallen backward.
It is proposed that samples of these monoliths (and others) be accurately weighed each year for several years, to determine if weight is still increasing. If so, and if rate has been undisturbed, curve may be extrapolated to indicate approximate date of vertical weightlessness (See above curve).
Typical half-life curve --- similar to decay of radioactive materials.
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4. Effects of Electrical Potential upon Gravitational Isotopes --- Controlled Lifting.
Leesburg, VA, October 7, 1955.
Two possibilities are foreseen:
(1) A static condition in which sustained electrical potential causes the effect, or
(2) A dynamic condition in which rate of change of potential causes the effect.

Increase of negativity causes exogravitic field, increase of grav. mass (weight). Decrease of inertial mass and gravitational attraction.

Increase of positivity causes endogravitic field, Decrease of grav. mass (weight). Increase of inertial mass, and gravitational attraction
Tests: No. 1
A shielded analytical precision balance charged + or – , 50KV or more.
Weight (brass) on one pan
Sample of rock on other pan

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In the foregoing test, advantage is made of the differential effect between brass and the sample susceptible to grav. change.
Test No. 2 --- Sustained effects of sudden increase of + potential source 100 KV or more.
Sample insulated from ground.

Test No. 3 --- Same as above, but sample arranged to be struck by lightning!
In this connection, it is interesting to speculate upon the reasons for the levitation or lofting of certain terrestrial materials, such as pebbles, sand, etc., which subsequently fell back to earth.
Could it be that certain materials in the "target regions struck by lightning (from positively charged clouds) acquire lofting properties temporarily? Certainly it would escape notice.
Subsequently, as the lofting properties decay, the material will fall back to earth. One of the steps toward testing such a hypothesis would be to measure over a period of successive weeks the weight of a stone or pebble known to have recently fallen. Evidence of increase in weigh would be sought.
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5. Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point
Leesburg VA, October 10, 1955
This is a review and restatement of principles underlying the differential electrometer. The basic tests which are proposed are for the purpose of clarifying the operation of the long wave electrogravitic receiver, and to reduce its functions to simplest possible terms.

Audio transformer coupling to amplifier.
Potentiometer automatically seeking null position, with chart recorder.
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6. Nascent Gravitational Isotopes --- Sec. 2 --- Excitation by Photons.
Leesburg VA, Dec. 25, 1955
An exact definition of a gravitational isotope, particularly one which sets forth physical forms, is urgently needed. It is almost impossible to make progress in any direction until this is done.
In searching various possibilities, the following interesting facts present themselves:
(1) In transistor theory, conductivity s attributed to the migration of "holes", as well as to electrons. The holes appear to possess (or at least exhibit the equivalence of unit positive charges, equal to the unit negative charges carried by electrons. As a matter of mathematical convenience, the holes may be treated as having the same mass as an electron.
(2) The definition of a hole is as elusive as that of a negative gravitational isotope. It is interesting to speculate for the time being on the possibility that there may be a relationship.
To begin with, they are holes in what? Apparently, valence positions in the crystal lattice where valence electrons are missing. But the mechanisms by which a vacancy can be passed on progressively, with the physical property of a mass in motion, is not clear.
Page 17
The revisions in the theory of conductivity, which have resulted of necessity from the study of semi-conductors, have provided evidence of  "positive carriers" hitherto unknown or unrecognized.
It is significant that these positive carriers are influenced by electric and/or magnetic fields in a way which is equivalent in every respect to the behavior of positive charges. They are indistinguishable, therefore, from charges.
That they may exist in paired, dipole or neutralized relation with charges of opposite sign necessarily follows.
Just as in other examples of pair creation, a photon may supply the energy. It is not clear, for example, whether the photon actually "creates" the positive-negative pair( with a mass of 2m), representing the equivalent mass energy value of the photon, or whether the total mass (2m) remains the same, with the photon merely supplying the energy to dissociate the pair.
Furthermore, if a valence hole is filled by an electron of the same but opposite charge, both are annihilated, and an extra electron is necessary to produce any net effect.
The energy of annihilation is radiated as a photon.
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If valence holes are representative of a class of positive charges found occasionally in the electronic shells of atoms, one may speculate upon similar charges in the nucleus. In most cases, such charges would be neutralized by electrons, and not enter into the electric balance of the atom.
Now, therefore, if one takes the bold step of postulating that holes (either as found in crystal lattice, complex electronic shells or nuclei) are holes in the negative effluvium, what is their gravitational mass (weight)? Let us postulate the existence of an entity which is merely a rarefaction of the negative effluvium, as contrasted with a local compression of effluvium which may be an electron.
If then, gravitational potential is synchronous with the potential of the negative effluvium, gravitational gradients exist as follows:

Outward from electron and inward toward hole.
Or as a concentric pair of zero net charge
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In other terms, the ether is the negative effluvium, the "elastic" compression of which represents potential energy. In the vicinity of large masses, the ether is less compressed, the potential energy of space is lower, but the potential energy of the mass is considerable (as represented by E + mc2), so that the total potential energy resident in the region is roughly constant everywhere.
In "free" intergalactic space --- let us say, in a mass free region (midway between the galaxies), negativity, and the compression of the ether is maximum. Space potential (gravitationally) is maximum. The potential difference exiting within an electron would be minimum. Electrons, as such, would be virtually indistinguishable from the ambient. "Holes", perhaps also positrons) would have maximum potential difference to their "interiors".
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At first impression, and this may be ultimately borne out, the electrons would possess weight (gravitational mass in the positive sense) whereas the "holes" may be lofting (negative gravitational mass). Both would possess inertial mass. A pair would be gravitationally and electrically neutral but would possess 2m initially.
When struck by a photon, a latent pair would be split, the energy of the binding supplied by the photon, with any excess providing recoil momentum to the pieces or parts so split.
Upon recombination, energy would be radiated as photons.
In summary, certain photo-emissive substances (perhaps complex silicates, lavas, and many other materials found in nature), when irradiated, may be found to lose weight. These materials would acquire a positive charge if insulated, but usually, in the process of weighing, the charge is lost. Similarly, the inertial mass (or the inertia with respect to the weight) will increase.
Upon standing, where recombination is permitted, heat (photons) is slowly evolved, causing the specimen to be continually warmer than its environment.
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7. Fatigue on Metals and the Creation of Light Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg, VA, Jan. 7, 1956
In the Brush experiment relating to heat-treated metals, certain case-hardened steels indicated an actual loss of weight following the heat treatment. In measurements of the specific gravity (or density) of various metal wires (platinum, tungsten, etc.), the values observed seem to vary in an unpredictable way with the amount of drawing or working which has preceded the measurement. In most cases, working decreases the specific gravity.
In the measurement of specific gravity, it is desirable always to use the specimen which is most representative of the physical state of the material tested. In the main, the specimen should be free of porosity. Compression usually reduces this porosity and increases density.
After a certain point, further compression, hammering and/or working does not increase the apparent density of the specimen but actually decreases. The result appears to be an actual decrease in the weight of the specimen due to the working.
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One may summarize, therefore, that if the effects of porosity are not considered, continued working of certain metals reduces their specific gravity.
One may speculate, as a further step, that there may be a concurrent reduction of tensile strength with specific gravity, ad further, that the entire problem of fatigue in metals may be related to this phenomenon.
In pursuance of such a hypothesis, the following ideas emerge:
(a) Because of continuing flexing, a strip of metal becomes heated presumably due to inter-molecular friction. If course, the question as to whether the molecules in the crystal lattice actually rub together in the mechanical sense gives one misgivings. It is more accurate probably to say that the coulomb damping in and between the electric shells of the component atoms, carried in part by the valence electrons, causes the release of these electrons and the creation of "holes". Or, similarly, from an energy standpoint, the available heat (as photons) causes "electron-hole" pair creation, with a possible increase in the electrical conductivity in the flexed specimen.
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Based on the assumption that flexing increases the population of holes, it is reasonable to look for a decrease in weight. If the holes represent loss of valence electrons (binding energy or cohesive force), it is reasonable to look for a gradual or progressive weakening of the metal or fatigue.
(c) In and specific region, saturation of holes is reached when fracture occurs, or vice versa. This is also the point at which specific gravity is minimum, i.e., the sample is gravitationally lightest.
(d) A critical experiment suggests itself: A thin specimen of susceptible metals (aluminum, tantalum, tungsten, platinum) is carefully weighed. It is then continually stressed (or simply bent back and forth) until it fractures, care being taken to lose no pieces. The broken parts (in toto) are then weighed and the loss of weight (if any) is noted immediately.
(e) Due to the decay of the holes by recombination with electrons, the weighing of the broken specimen (pieces) must be performed as quickly after fracture as possible.
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(f) If such an experiment gives positive results, the following possibilities are of great interest:
(1). The production of light gravitational isotopes by mechanical manipulation.
(2) Large scale changes in weight due to tectonic forces and movement in the crust of the Earth.
(3) Nascent gravitational isotopes in recent lava "coolings" that have moved until cool.
(4) Loss of weight of recently forged specimens, hammered, hot or cold rolled, especially after excessive mechanical working.
(5) Loss of weight of recently crushed rock, pulverized sand or clays.
(6) Extension of knowledge as to the cause of fatigue (crystallization) in mtals.
(7) Change in properties due to cold flow as distinguished from elasticity.
(8) Spontaneous generation of heat as gravitational isotopes decay through annihilation of electron-hole pairs and emission of photons.
(9) Decay of heating effect according to half-life curve.
(10) Warmth of recently crushed rock or sand and the decay of the warmth with time.
(11) Altering the rate of decay, i.e., speeding up decay by negativity (elec.), slowing up decay by positivity.
(12) Effects of elastic field rate-of-change.
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8. Creation of Gravitational Isotopes. Sec. I.
Leesburg, VA, Jan 7, 1956.
The Possibility of creating (or energizing materials lighter than normal has interesting implications. It simply means that certain normal materials (in the sense that the ratio of mg to mi = 1 ) may be energized or activated so hat the ratio is less than 1.
Energy is stored in electron-hole pair creation which is returned to the environment only upon annihilation of the pair. Photons are absorbed and photons are radiated.
The following possibilities are inherent in the idea:
(a) Irradiation of loess by light (visible), ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma rays, producing lofting particles which decay and return to Earth.
(b) Sparked loess (positive sparks. Irradiate both by UV light and electric discharge).
(c) Pulverizing (additional grinding. Mechanical irradiation. See Sec. 7).
(d) In or near atomic piles or sites of nuclear explosions.
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9. The Postulation of an Anti-Gravitational Particle. Definition and Characteristics.
Leesburg, VA. Jan, 9, 1956.
In the foregoing hypotheses, the existence of lighter (than normal) gravitational fractions is proposed. It is reasoned that certain presently unexplained behavior of matter (such as the Brush Effects and the anomalous densities of many elements and compounds) may be adequately accounted for if one postulates the existence in nature of lighter and/or heavier fractions in the gravitational sense.
Development of this view introduces the necessity to define "mass" and to distinguish two kinds of mass:---
(1) Gravitational Mass (mg) as being the quality of matter susceptible to or reacting upon the (any) gravitational field, and
(2) Inertial Mass ( mi ) as being the quality of matter susceptible to or reacting with acceleration or centrifuging force.
A tentative relationship would be:
me mi = , constant,
where e is an unknown exponent.
The constant represents the total potential energy E of the mass in the equation E = mc2.
Page 27
Therefore, for any given mass, since E = mge mi C2 ; therefore, mge || 1 / mi.
For any given mass, the alteration of weight must accompany an alteration of inertial mass in an inverse relationship.
In the first concept of gravitational isotopes, the accepted value for the density (gr/cc) of an element or compound represented merely a mean value, with both lighter and heavier fractions in varying proportions being present.
If, for example, the mean value is less than the theoretically normal value (see chart of gravity anomalies of the elements), it is reasoned that the element, or at least that particular sample of the element, contains gravitationally lighter components.
Let us consider the nature of these lighter components.
It would appear that inasmuch as all elements exhibits the presence of those components, the active agent is probably common to all and may take the form of a fundamental particle --- of anti-gravitational properties.
Page 28
Such a particle may be said to have negative gravitational permeability and exhibit negative g. In free state, it would accelerate "upward" or loft. Its potential energy would be greatest, for example, at the surface of the earth and it would diminish as the particle "falls away" from the earth --- converting this gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy.
It will be seen that this property is the converse of that of ordinary mater. In this sense, such a lofting particle may be described as "contra-terrene". While the gravitational mass of such a particle may be said to be negative (for the reason that it is repelled in a gravitational field), the inertial mass is positive.
Hence, as the particle accelerates in escaping, it acquires momentum. This positive mass is revealed during acceleration and in any centrifugal situation.
Now, as to the nature of the anti-gravitational particle, considerable uncertainty exists in my mind. I shall try to resolve some of this, but the final answers can be given only after definitive experiments have provided the answers.
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In the foregoing entries in this book wherein gravitational isotopes were mentioned, the concept seemed to revolve around the possibilities of holes in the effluvium wherein a kind of gravitational buoyancy existed.
The holes of a semi-conductor appear as possibilities in this respect. If so, the anti-gravitational particle must be associated with electrical positivity. This would be particularly true if the effluvium itself is negative --- as an indefinitely extended diffuse electron ocean, but with a potential gradient to provide the direction of force.
Such holes are observed as the absence of electrons and hence behave as positrons. They are, therefore, of the same general magnitude as electrons. Holes and electrons are created n pairs by the action of a photon of the proper energy. It would tentatively appear that a low energy photon (heat) causes a slight separation of hole and electron, as in a dipole creation, whereas a high energy photon causes a further separation to the point where binding is lost and the separated particles take up independent lives. Here the energy of the photon equals or exceeds the binding energy of the pair.
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On a much smaller scale, but perhaps equally significant, is the creation of the neutrino and the anti-neutrino. Energy is required to create such a pair and that energy is released upon recombination or annihilation of the pair.
For the moment, let us consider only the possibilities of the larger scale effect; that is, those effects which can be operative in the shells of atoms rather than in the nucleus. Holes and electrons (as pairs), electrically neutral, can certainly be trapped in shells. Complex structures, such as are obviously present, for example, in the rare earth atoms, may contain such dipole structures or concentric structures formed of electron-hole combinations. Photons (energy) could cause and maintain such dipole or concentric structures. Heat energy could therefore cause expansion by the effects of increasing the physical separation of these pairs and the resulting chasing action (primary Brownian movement) of such dipoles.

Chasing action of an electron-hole dipole.
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10. An Experiment to Show Lofting Effects of an Irradiated Dust.
Leesburg, VA, Jan 29, 1956.
  
  

A pulverized material, or a natural clay or loess, is placed on an electrode within a chamber capable of being evacuated. It is irradiated by a source of ultraviolet and/or visible radiation. The dust is observed through a telescope.
The pan maintaining the dust is charged electro-positively and the lighter particles are observed to "take off" and migrate under the action of the field toward the negative electrode.
However, the impressed electrostatic field is for purposes of control only. If true change of weight of a particle is observed, the electric field may be reduced, eliminated or reversed.
It is conceivable, however, that the lofting particles may bear electropositive charges naturally, hence will be more affected by the field and tend to separate from the unelectrified (normal) particles.
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11. Quantitative Weighing of Photo-Isotopes in a Precision Balance.
Leesburg, VA, Jan 29, 1956.
If it is found possible to create negative gravitational isotopes by irradiation, a measurement may be possible simply by weighing a shallow sample on a precision balance:
(1) under conditions of darkness
(2) " intense visible illumination.
(3) " " ultraviolet.
(4) " x-rays.
12. The Photo-Isotope (Electroluminescence)

A metal can (a) is filled with loess (or equivalent). A fine ionizing wire is placed at the center, very highly positively charged.
Coronal glow irradiates the region immediately adjacent to the ionizing wire and the effects tend to spread to the inside walls of the cell, irradiating all of the material in the cell.

Active photoisotopic material in disc.
Page 33.
13. Increase of Inertial Mass in the Photo-Isotopic Cell, along with decrease in weight.
Leesburg, VA , Jan 27, 1956.
Proposed method of testing:

Arranged as a pendulum. Leads --- coaxial polyethylene cable. 50 KV +.
Observations of period.
(1) Tests to be made with no charge.
(2) ""”"” (+) " applied.
(3) ""”"” (–) "".
According to theory, the observed period with + charge applied should be longest, indicating:
(a) increase of inertial mass, or
(b) decrease of weight, or
(c) both.
To separate these effects, an inertial device such as an anniversary clock or centrifugal (rotor) device may be used. (See Inertial Differential Electrogravitic Motor., Sec. 39).
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14. Centrifugal Inertial Effects on Electrically Modulated Photoisotopic Cells.
Leesburg VA, Jan. 29, 1956.

In the position as shown PC, is electropositive, hence gravitationally lighter but inertially more massive. The opposite is true of PC2 in the position shown.
A net force should therefore result as indicated, acting in the direction toward the positive electrode.
Rapid rotation should increase the force effective.
(This system, used as a motor, is described further in Sec. 39.)
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15. Beneficiation by Ion Separation
Leesburg VA, Feb 3, 1956

When irradiated, susceptible dust which bears a positive charge is attracted electrostatically to the negative electrode and falls to the right of center.

Heat and radiation is applied at positive electrode (which may be mechanically agitated). Sensitive dust which had become excited rises in electrostatic field to the negative electrode where it is neutralized and falls immediately.

Separation of suspended clay particles on the cathode.
(1) Heavy conductivity (water) fluid
(2) Non-conductivity (oil) fluid
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15. (Continued)

Separation by lofting property of dust, upon being excited.
16. Beneficiation by Differential Centrifugal Action
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 4, 1956.
As described in the project submitted to DuPont, one method of beneficiating light gravitational isotopes is the centrifugal action upon materials floating in heavy liquids. To go into detail, the following may be said:
To beneficiate kaolinite (aluminum silicate, density 2.5), the finely ground material is floated upon an aqueous solution of thallium malonate-thallium formate adjusted to approx. 3.0 density (sp. gr.).
In a gravitational field, the material floats on the surface of the liquid, but in a strong centrifugal "field", the aluminum silicate particles having a low g/i ratio will sink. If the settlings are fixed, either by freezing or compaction, they may be removed en masse after the centrifuge has stopped.
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17. Regarding a Measure of Centrifugal Force as Distinguished from Gravity.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 5, 1956.
To rate a centrifuge as so many "g’s" is obviously incorrect and basically unsound, if one is to distinguish between the effects of acceleration and gravitation.
One "g" is defined as that force (due to gravity) which will impact an acceleration to a mass equivalent to that experienced at the surface of the earth, i.e., approx. 980 cm/sec2.
Centrifugal force, on the other hand, depends upon inertial mass only and is in no way equivalent to the force of gravitation.
Three factors affect the rate of fall, or, more accurately, the acceleration of a free-falling body, (1) The intensity of the gravitational field or gradient, (2) the susceptibility of the material being acted upon by that field, and (3) the inertial mass of that material.
Obviously, and contrary to the currently accepted postulate of Relativity, all materials in nature do no react to the same extent to gravitation and, further, the weight-inertial mass ratio is not the same with all materials.
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17. (Continued)
In a gravitational gradient or field fg, accel. = mg fg / mi where
mg = gravitational (susceptibility) mass,
mi = inertial mass
Where mg = mi, the accel. is only dependent upon fg. A field fg which will cause the acceleration of 980 cm/sec2 under these circumstances is considered to be 1 "g".
Hence, we may refer to the ratio mg/mi, or simply the ratio g/i, as the "g-i" ratio. Under average conditions, when the ratio equals unity, there is said to be equivalence between weight and mass, as postulated by Einstein. However, when the "g-i" ratio is less than unity, the acceleration due to gravity is less and the acceleration in an inertial field is greater. When the ratio is greater than unity, the opposite appears to be true.
g / i = 1 (normal, mass-weight equivalence).
g / i > 1 (heavy gravitational isotopes prevail)
g / i < 1 (light gravitational isotopes prevail)
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18. The g / i (gee-eye) Ratio
Leesburg, VA, Feb 5, 1956.
The g-i ratio represents the gravity-inertial property of a material. It differs with different materials and with the same materials at different times or under different states of excitation.
When the g-i ratio is unity, there is an exact equivalence of weight and inertial mass. This may be described as average or mean condition.
Certain materials in nature apparently have less or greater inertial mass for a given weight (under similar circumstances) and such materials therefore have a g-i ratio differing from unity.
A g-i ratio is said to be high, normal or low depending upon whether it is above unity, at unity or below unity, respectively. Light gravitational isotopes present predominantly in a mass tends to lower the g-i ratio.
Examples:
Material A. Given a g-i ratio of 0.901, weight (gravitationally) 10 grams, Centrifuge rating 10,000 g’s; What is actual centrifugal equivalent?
10,000 / 0.901 = 11,090+ g’s equiv.
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Page 40
19. Centrifugal Differential Hydrometry
Leesburg, VA, Feb 5, 1956.
Principles set forth in Sec. 16 and touched upon further in Sec. 18, are basically described as follows:

In gravity field of any value of g, scale set to zero hydrometer reading.
Then: When in centrifuge.

If material in hydrometer bulbs has a g-i ratio of 1, no other reading will be indicated whatever the speed of rotation.
If, however, material in bulb has a g-i ratio less than 1, hydrometer will sink lower in liquid as centrifugal force increases, the change in reading being proportional to the rate of rotation.
If, however, material in bulb has a g-i ratio less than 1, hydometer will sink lower in liquid, as centrifugal force increases, the change in reading being proportional to the rate of rotation (of the centrifuge).
If the material in the bulb has a g-i ratio greater than 1, the hydrometer bulb will rise in the liquid as the centrifugal force increases.
Page 41
The reading of a floating hydrometer during centrifuging may be accomplished by using an indicator coating on the stem of the hydrometer, the color or shading of which changes when in contact with the liquid. Such an arrangement will permit reading the position (maximum) after the centrifuge has stopped and the hydrometer returned to zero position.
The method is useful in determining the g-i ratio of any unknown material, simply by placing a known amount in the bulb of a standardized form of hydrometer, using a liquid the g-i ratio of which is 1, and centrifuging at a known rate. These materials may be in liquid as well as solid sate. The sensitivity increases in proportion to the speed of the centrifuge.
The advantages of the hydrometer method of determining the g-i ratio of a material is that it is self-balancing and independent of the compaction of material during centrifuging. The hydrometer bulbs, since they are made of glass (a silicate), must be carefully checked and isotopically balanced to prevent a contribution to the reading. Change in geometry due to compression of the bulb must also be taken into account, but this may be balanced out and disregarded when liquids or semi-fluids are tested.
Witnessed this 5th day of February 1956.
T. Townsend Brown
Witnessed Feb. 5, 1956 at Leesburg, VA,
Helen Brasafort
Joesphine B. Brown
Page 42
20. Energy Changes and Excited States in the Creation and Determination of Gravitational Isotopes
Leesburg, VA, Feb 5, 1956.
Energy is required to create negative gravitational isotopes. This energy may be supplied in the form of protons (from infrared to gamma radiation) and conceivably also from high speed particles.
When applied to susceptible materials, this energy causes a temporary excited state, and this state accompanies a change in the g-i ratio to a lower value.
This excited state gradually deteriorates (probably according to a half-life curve) at different rates according to the material irradiated. The g-i ratio increases accordingly and approaches a value of 1 asymptotically. During this decay, energy is released, mainly in the form of heat, and to a small extant, possibly also as visible light.
This evolution of energy at a high rate may not necessarily indicate a low gi ratio but more probably a high rate of decay, i.e., a short half-life, and to some extent also, a recent irradiation. The evolution of light (if it does occur) would immediately follow cessation of irradiation --- and, as a matter of fact, may be present during irradiation, for decay would be proceeding at the same time as irradiation.
Page 43
The effect may be similar to photoexcitation of phosphors, the persistence of the radiation determined by the rate of decay of the excited state.
Immediately following removal of the exciting radiation, the luminescence and heating effect is greatest. The radiation diminishes as the excited state decays.
This suggests a beneficiated clay or other material which may be periodically excited and then (following irradiation) gives off heat slowly during the decay of the excited state. Thus such a material would serve as a heat reservoir with the energy stored as an electrogravitic excited state.
21. Certain Complex Silicates (natural clays, etc.) as Heat Reservoirs Following Irradiation by Sunlight.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 11, 1956.
It is interesting speculation at this point to consider the possibility that certain desert sands and clays may thus become irradiated during the intense illumination of the day, and thus retain an ability to evolve heat through the night which exceeds the basic thermal capacity of the material.
Page 44
Concurrent with the irradiation, the material may become gravitationally lighter and, at the same time, inertially more massive.
If there is a fraction of the irradiated desert sand or clay which is sufficiently susceptible, to the extent that the g-i ratio decreases to zero or goes negative, the particles comprising that fraction may actually rise (loft) until nightfall stops the irradiation. At which time, the particles may start to return to earth --- falling perhaps like micro-meteorites.
Needless to say, a collection of this material --- beneficiated in this way by nature --- would be susceptible again to the same radiation. If the natural radiation could be intensified by a quartz lens or metallic parabolic mirror and focused upon a small sample of highly susceptible material, the probability is that the material would quickly loft. This would provide a simple and effective confirmation.
Along this line, it has always been a mystery to me why magnetite is found frequently on top of sand at the waterline on beaches both in rivers and at the ocean. If it were merely that the sand had washed away, leaving the magnetite on top, an explanation might be provided. But, in many cases, the sand has been recently deposited and it is not clear how the magnetite can be carried along with the sand in the initial process of beach formation unless the densities were of the same order and/or unless the magnetite fell as micrometeorites during or subsequent to the formation of the beach. The density of average beach sand is 2.5 gr/cm3 while that of normal magnetite is 5.5 gr/cm3, more than twice as heavy.
Page 45
Magnetite found in beach sands may therefore be a susceptible material. It should be investigated.
The same may be said for loess. The beach sand deposits of monazite at Jacksonville Beach, FL are also interesting in this connection.
22. Beneficiation of Light Gravitational Isotopes (by irradiation and selective lofting and falling) as it may occur on the Moon.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 11, 1956.
Another purely speculative matter of interest at this point is the possibility of natural beneficiation occurring on the surface of the moon.
Due to the slow rate of rotation of the moon, the moon’s daylight is approx. 14 days in length and night is also 14 days in length.
Page 46.
During the long lunar day, temperatures rise well above 200-300° F in the surface materials. The radiation of the sun (due to the absence of atmosphere) is strong also in the ultraviolet. Conditions are sustained for 14 days which are especially favorable for the excitation of photoisotopes. Lofting of susceptible fractions of surface dust is indicated. This material rises to great height and part of it may escape into space. If a positive space charge is created by the first waves of lofting material, electrostatic repulsive forces may slow up further lofting.
Assuming then, a continuing lofting and falling process, the moon’s surface may become covered with a fine dust which engages every lunar day in a lofting-falling cycle.
The surface then becomes covered with an especially deep layer at the end of the lunar night. This may be a rich deposit of photoisotopic material actually beneficiated by Nature.
The question, of course, may be asked if similar conditions exist or may be made to exist, upon the earth. One may search expectantly, it would seem, at the edge of deserts --- especially on the downwind side.
Page 47
23. The value of "g" is not constant for all materials
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 10, 1956.
The acceleration due to gravity "g", normally about 980 cm/cm2, is the result of a force acting upon a mass.
a = f / m.
If the f does no increase in proportion to m, a lower acceleration results: But this is inertia mass mi --- the reluctance to acceleration. The f is the force resulting from the action of the gravitational field upon the specific material. That action may be expressed as:
mg x fg.  Hence,
a = mg / mi x fg.
mg / mi = g / i (ratio) , therefore
a = ( g-i ratio ) x fg
when (g-i ratio) is a characteristic of the material under (or at) a certain state of excitation where g-i ratio = 1, no excitation exists.
fg is a function of the inertial mass of the attracting body.
Page 48
24. Contact Excitation of Photoisotopes by Highly Energized Isotopes.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 10, 1956.
A question presents itself as to the possibility that a highly energized body may transfer energy to a less energized body, either by conduction thru direct contact or by induction thru merely being in proximity.
Can, for example, a highly excited sand or clay energize rock? Can an excited gas (as in a positively charged fireball of nitrogen) excite the sand, gravel or other material by which it has been grounded and annihilated? Can the mere presence of contra-terrene material induce an effect of similar nature in a susceptible material?
Probably only experiment will reveal the answers. It is worth considering, however, for there are similar effects observable in other manifestations of energy --- such as heat, electrostatics, etc.
One immediately ponders the question as to energy excitation capacity, such as specific heat. Does a material of low specific (excitation) capacity transfer its energy to a material of higher excitation capacity, where there is only a slight difference in potential.
Page 49
This would raise the question that materials may differ in excitation energy) capacity. Hence, more energy would be required to excite certain atoms (or materials generally) than others. More energy would be released, and hence the rate of evolution would be greater, or the rate of decay would be greater --- or possibly both.
A measure of potential must then be foreseen. Raising the potential from one value to another, multiplied by the specific capacity, would consume energy, as
E = Pdif x capacity.
If then, a material of high capacity were to come into contact with a material of low capacity and would discharge thereinto, would the P reach a higher value in the second material? Based on analogous heat or electric situations, the answer would seem to be that the potential governs the flow, not the capacity.
Therefore, if a transfer of energy takes place, it is because a difference in potential exists. Energy will flow until the potential is equalized.
In energizing a material of high capacity, a flow similar to the electric charging of a storage battery takes place, with the potential rising as the charging continues.
Page 50
If the g-i ratio is a measure of excitation potential, then I must be in reciprocal relation. As an arbitrary zero, the g-i ratio of 1 can be taken. The excitation potential increases as the ratio decreases to zero. It continues to increase as the ratio goes negative. Let us divide the scale so that the distance from 1 to zero is 100 units. The distance from zero to –1 is then also 100 units, As: ---
Excitation Potential // g-i  ratio
200 units // -1
100 " // 0
0 " // +1
Therefore, in summary, a material will have mass-weight equivalence at zero potential, weightlessness and double mass (or some larger exponent) at 100 units and lofting at 1g and some still larger inertial mass at 200 units of excitation.
To excite a material, the energy (photon) equivalent of the excitation potential required must be supplied. In effect, this is electromagnetic excitation. This excitation must be continued for a length of time determined by the excitation capacity of the material.
Page 51
Just as in charging a storage battery, a longer time is required or a greater flow to charge a material of higher capacity.
Once charged, a material of higher capacity will continue in the excited state until discharged, and will last longer or discharge at a higher rate, or both.
If there is a difference in capacity of materials, it is logical to assume, at least to start with, that the capacity may be a direct function of the inertial mass at zero potential or grav. mass at any potential.
Hence, to irradiate a rare earth metal or tantalum would require more energy than aluminum or silicon, but the radiated energy during decay would likewise be greater. When once energized to a given potential, tantalum would give off more energy during decay to zero potential and would do so at a greater rate or for a longer time, or both.
Aluminum silicate could be excited to a given potential with less energy because its excitation capacity is less.
Now therefore, on the basis that the specific excitation is less than that of tantalum, it is clear that the decay radiation total will be different to the same extent.
Tantalum will absorb more energy and give off more energy in reaching the same excitation potential. The rate of charging will depend (1) upon the potential of the charging source and (2) upon the rate of charging (or flow).
Therefore, to return to the subject of this reaction, the rate of flow (conductivity) may depend upon the proximity and/or contact with the charging source.
If, for example, two pieces of tantalum having been differently excited (that is at presently different potentials) were brought into contact, energy would most certainly flow from one to the other. The flow would cease when their potentials balanced. This would constitute contact excitation of one by the other.
If highly excited aluminum silicate were placed in an envelope or container made of tantalum, contact would tend to cause the excitation of the tantalum, but the difference in the specific capacity would be so great as to virtually discharge the aluminum silicate without effectively draining the potential of the tantalum, unless, of course, the volume of aluminum silicate makes up for the difference in specific capacity.
On the other hand, highly excited tantalum could energize a large quantity of aluminum silicate without an appreciable drop in potential of the tantalum.
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