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14 托马斯汤森布朗 Thomas Townsend BROWN的反重力实验

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 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-28 09:16:39 | 显示全部楼层
Page 53
One may speculate then that excitation in this respect is contagious from one element to the other, that there may be a variation from element to element, (1) in capacity, (2) in rates of spontaneous decay.
The more interesting elements, therefore, are those which have reasonably high capacity and very slow rates of decay.

Possible method for exciting rock through continuing contact excitation by irradiated sand.
Loess may be used in place of irradiated sand, and would be especially effective if beneficiated.

Beneficiating by contact excitation by dragging rock over desert sand.
Page 54

More modern method for doing same thing.
Tantalum lofting by excitation from corona photons.
The use of irradiated clay as a method to energize rock. In this respect, clay serves as an impedance matching device --- between the high potential of the exciting photons and the low potential of the rock or other solid material.
The ancients may have known that if they rubbed (Nile) mud, irradiated by the desert sun, on large rocks that the rocks lost weight until they could be easily carried.
Page 55
25. Preservation of the Rotation of the Earth by the Gravitational Differential of the Field of the Sun --- Due to Solar Irradiation of Photoisotopes.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 15, 1956.
If the g-i  ratio of the materials comprising the surface of the earth (including the atmosphere) is decreased by the action of sunlight, the following effect may account for sustaining the rotation:

The atmosphere, being free to slip, would move in the direction from W to E because of the differential field.
Correction: Perhaps it should not be called a differential field. What I intend to say is that it is a differential effect caused by two values of g large value on the west limb and small value on the east limb (of the Earth) in the gravitational field of the Sun.
Page 56
26. Factors which may cause the Rotation of the Earth.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
Neglecting all velocity components except the basic orbital velocity of the Earth, a situation with respect to the irradiation of the Earth by the Sun, and the inertial mass differential developed therefrom, may possibly account for a torque upon the Earth, as:--

Orbital motion of Earth.
Daylight side --- due to irradiation, mg/mi decreasing, mi increasing
Assuming conservation of momentum, then since mi is increasing V1 must decrease. On the night side, since mi is decreasing V2 must increase. Hence, a torque is present tending to revolve Earth in the direction indicated.
This torque would be continuously applied and would increase the rate of rotation of the Earth without the present (low) limit were it not for the factors mentioned in Sec. 27.
Page 57.
27. Counter-Rotational Torque Tending to Limit the Rate of Rotation of the Earth.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
Considering now the rotation of the Earth as given, and neglecting all other velocity components, the following situation may exist:

On the daylight side, irradiation causes increase in mi, and a force tending to decrease V1 as shown as F1.
On the night side, decay causes decrease in mi and a force tending to increase V2, as shown as F2.
Since both of these forces are in the same direction, the result is a contribution to the orbital motion. It is this force which ma account for the basic orbital velocity (given in Sec. 26).
However, since the actual velocity of the Earth surface is the result of both orbital and axial rotation, the forces actually acting are as follows:
Page 58

V2 > V1
Irradiation causes increase in mi, hence F1.
Decay causes decrease in mi, hence F2.
Since F1 and F2 contribute to the axial rotation, the result is similar to that indicated in Sec. 26, and we must look elsewhere for the counter-rotational torque.
It would appear at the moment that we must look elsewhere for this effect, and probably the most fruitful place to look would be in the solar-tidal friction produced upon and within the body of the Earth (including the oceans) as it revolves.
Such friction would increase quite rapidly as the rate of rotation increases, hence would soon reach an equilibrium revolution at a certain rate.
We can assume, I believe, that this equilibrium (in the case of the Earth) has been reached.
28. The Equilibrium Condition Between the Amount of Irradiation and the Orbital and Axial Motion of the Earth.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
In Sec. 26, orbital motion plus irradiation causes axial rotation.
In Sec. 27, axial rotation plus irradiation caused orbital motion.
Obviously, there is an interaction between all three factors, so that an equilibrium condition exists for all values of irradiation.
It is apparent that, in the foregoing, orbital motion per se is not required. What is required is that the relative position of the source of irradiation shall not change with respect to the body being irradiated. Hence to maintain a fixed relative position, orbital motion satisfies this requirement.
At any instant, therefore, orbital motion is equivalent to linear motion.
A summary of the situation, therefore, points to a possible interaction between linear motion, irradiation and particle rotation.
This inter-relationship may be observed in the laboratory.
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Page 60
29. Conservation of Momentum and the Change of Velocity with Change in Inertial Mass
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956
Basic considerations:

As mi increases, V must decrease, and vice versa.

If V is given, Rotation results is irradiation is maintained on one side of a photo-sensitive material.

If rotation is given, V results under same circumstances.
And the three factors are related in an equilibrium depending upon al three.

Torque such that mi increasing resists V, and falls behind.

Stable position.
Page 61
30. Detection of Absolute Motion by Means of Modulated Inertial Mass
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 18, 1956.
Postulate:
A force vector becomes apparent (1) in the direction of absolute motion whenever mi is decreased, and (2) away from the direction of motion whenever mi is increased.
The tendency is to conserve momentum.
Experiment:

When an alternating emf is employed (at a frequency synchronous with period of pendulum), the system will swing in an alignment with direction of absolute motion.
Witnessed this 18th of Feb 1956.
Helen Brasufort
Josephine B. Brown
Page 62
31. Electrogravitic Radio Using Photoisotopic Cells.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 18, 1956
An improvement over the use of highly conducting metals as antennae (see pat. Appl. On subject) appears to present itself in the photoisotopic cell (See Sec. 12).
In Sec. 29 and 30, the effect of changing inertial mass was set forth. This is in accord with the law of conservation of momentum. This calls for a change in velocity according to the equation for kinetic energy E = ½ mV2.
Hence, for a given momentum
m || V2  or  mi || V2
m being inertial mass as distinguished from gravitational mass (mg).
Any modulating inertial mass (mi) must exert a force during the time of change tending to increase or decrease its absolute velocity. As stated in Sec. 30, the direction of this force must be toward or away from the exact direction of its absolute motion (in space).
Hence, if an antenna (of an electro-gravitic radio transmitter) is electrically or photo-isotopically modulated, it will tend to vibrate mechanically in the alignment of its absolute motion.
Page 63
Conversely, one may look for the generation of an alternating potential if such a mass is vibrated in the alignment of its absolute motion (in space).
Since the velocity enters the equation with /as an experiment, it is possible that the voltage may turn out to be a function of the absolute velocity, but this will be discussed in a later chapter.
In any case, the use of photoisotope cells in electrogravitic radio transmitters is indicated. A fundamental circuit is as follows:

Transmitter >> gravitational radiation >> receiver

A transmitting antenna using a multiplicity of photoisotopic cells for modulating mi.
Page 64
32. A Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or Generator Using a "Velocity" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 19, 1956
In the foregoing chapters, it was pointed out that the rapid modulation of inertial mass would cause mechanical forces resulting in vibration. The direction of the principal vibration would be parallel to the absolute motion of the mass.

Therefore, if a rotating system were synchronously excited (phased in with the rotation),

In this case, rotation would be impeded.
If turning clockwise, rotation would be assisted, and system would operate as a motor.
Case No. 2

Stable position. Same as Sec. 29, Fig. 5.
 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-28 09:17:27 | 显示全部楼层
Page 65
Case No. 3

Given --- absolute V
" --- rotation as shown
" --- unmodulated mass
Then a potential would be generated.
When a given inertial mass is at position 1, its absolute velocity is maximum. When the rate of velocity change is greatest (slowing), this corresponds to greatest positive excitation, etc., etc.
Any whirling dipole (uncharged initially) will acquire an alternating emf due to the "velocity" field, synchronized with the rotation. Or,
A revolving disc or sphere will do the same, as

The increased V is equivalent to a negative charge or high g-i ratio.
The decreased V is equivalent to a positive charge or low g-i ratio.
This generator effect may account for the day-night difference in potential in the surface of the Earth.
Page 66
33. A Rotating Electro-Gravitic Motor or Generator Using an "Inertial" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb 19, 1956.
The inertial field differs from the velocity field in this respect:
An inertial field is due to an acceleration or a change in velocity. It is measured as the rate of change of velocity.
The inertial field affects mi directly and produces a mechanical force proportional to mi, whereas the velocity field produces a mechanical force only when there is a change in mi and to an amount proportional to the rate of change of mi.

When excited as shown, (+) causes increase in mi, (-) causes decreases in mi, hence rotation results.
The inertial field can be created either by acceleration or centrifugal action. But in either case, force must be in direction as indicated to produce rotation as indicated.
When operated as a generator, polarity is opposite to that shown.
Page 67.
34. A Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or Generator Using a Gravitational Field
Leesburg, VA, Feb, 19, 1956.
The gravitational field has a similar but opposite effect from the inertial field as set forth in Sec. 33.

When excited as shown, (+) causes decreases in mg, (-) causes increase in mg, hence rotation is as indicated.
When used as a generator, polarity is opposite to that shown.
It will be seen that when wired in the same way, rotation is opposite to that of the inertial field motor.
Used in a detecting device, such a motor being identical to the inertial field motor, would rotate in clockwise direction of the inertial field predominated and in a counter-clockwise direction of the gravitational field predominates.
In this respect, this device would operate differentially.
When turned as a generator, the electric current generated would also act differentially, reading zero upon balance.
Page 68
35. Rotating Electrogravitic Motor or Generator Using a Velocity" Field.
Leesburg, VA, Feb. 19, 1956.
In order to describe it in a comparable way, the material set forth in Sec. 32 is redrafted as follows:

If mi in moving from A to B to C increases, absolute motion should be decreased, hence a force as indicated. In moving from C to D to A, mi decreases, hence V should tend to increase as also indicated.
The additional torque will cause the device to continue in operation after once started in the direction of the arrows.
When not excited and when used as a generator, the polarity is opposite to that shown. The reason is as follows:
When a mass is at point D, the V is greatest. When it moves to A, its rate of decrease of velocity is maximum. During this decrease of V, a positive charge appears, being a function of the rate. Similarly during the increase of V a negative charge appears, equal in magnitude to the rate at which the equivalent mass mi is decreasing.
Page 69
36. Use of Electrogravitic Generators as Measuring Instruments for g, i, and V ‘Fields".
Leesburg, VA; Feb 19, 1956.
When driven, the following rotors may develop an emf which depends upon the strength of gravity, inertial and (fixed velocity) "fields".

Rotation clockwise as shown, Polarity as indicated. Susceptible materials (unexcited).

Rotation same as above. Polarity is now opposite to that above.

To measure absolute velocity, an emf is developed as indicated.
This is a summary of the information set forth in Sec. 33, 34, and 35.
It is readily apparent that various combinations of the above may be used in balancing circuits to obtain special information as to relative "field" strengths.
Page 70
37. The Earth as the Rotor of an Electrogravitic Generator.
Leesburg, VA; Feb. 19, 1956.















It now appears that the polarities developed by both the g and i fields are in the same direction, but that the polarity developed by the velocity "field" opposes.
This situation is not clearly understood at the present writing. It will be reviewed at a later time.
38. Change of angular velocity with change in mi in order to conserve Angular Momentum.
Leesburg, VA; Feb 19, 1956.

Initial rotation given, when photoisotope cells on periphery of rotor are:
(1) negatively charged --- mi is decreased and rotor speeds up.
(2) positively charged --- mi is increased and rotor slows
The above is based on the conservation of angular momentum.
Page 71
39. Inertial Differential Electrogravitic Motor
Leesburg, VA; Feb 19 1956.
In Sec. 13 and 14, attention was called to the possibility that the change in inertial mass mi, when modulated, could give rise to an unbalanced centrifugal force which could move the rotating system persistently in one direction.
This possibility is further explored:

When rotated at high speed and when using photosensitive material of very short persistence.
On the (+) side, g / i < 1 , or at least i (+) <> i (-), hence a force due to the unbalance of the opposing centrifugal forces is created.
This force (f) tends to move the system as a whole in the direction indicated.
It is clear that, at high rotational speeds, even a small inertial mass difference on the two sides could cause a substantial force upon the system as a whole. Even with crude materials the effect may be found to be easily observable.
Page 72.
40. The Loss of Weight of Quartz Capsules Containing a Photosensitive Isotope when Irradiated by UV Light
Leesburg, VA ; Feb 19, 1956.
A quick and yet convincing test (of Sec. 11) is possible by sealing a given amount of photoisotope in a capsule of fused quartz and weighing.
Weight should be taken of the capsule (1) in total darkness, (2) in normal light of the laboratory, (3) under UV light and (4) intense sunlight (without intervening glass).
The use of the quartz capsule prevents escape (evolution) of moisture during the irradiation, without filtering out the uv by absorption.
A standardized size of capsule may be adopted containing say 10 cc of material for comparison tests for loss of weight.
A laboratory precision balance, preferably "chainomatic" or equivalent is suggested due to the need for rapid determination of weight which is continually changing.
A curve showing loss of weight during excitation and gain of weight during decay will be required for a variety of materials.
Page 73
41. The Results of a Change of Inertial Mass Following Modulated Beneficiation (with Low Persistence)
Leesburg, VA; Feb. 26, 1956.
Part I. Change of Angular Velocity to Conserve Angular Momentum.
In  Sec. 13, the possibility of a change in inertia mass of the photoisotope cell was considered. A laboratory experiment was described I which the period of a pendulum containing a photoisotope cell could be measured. The observations, however, would be non-specific as to the change in inertial mass per se, except when performed in an anniversary clock or centrifugal (rotor) device. It is the purpose of the present section to develop this idea.
Using several photoisotope cells (of low persistence) arranged on the periphery of a wheel-like support and connected so as to be charged in unison, as:

Given initial velocity --- when positively charged, mass mi increases, hence V decreases, or, When negatively charged, mass mi decreases, and V increases.
AC would cause periodic change in V.
Page 74
Another form of this experiment may be a disc which is energized (photoisotopically) from the center, as:

When unexcited and spinning at a known rate, then excited positively as shown, the inertial mass mi is increased, causing the rate of rotation to decrease.
When used as an anniversary clock, the period is lengthened by the application of a positive charge.
Part II. The Disc-Type Inertial Differential Electrogravitic Motor.
A development of the form of motor described in Sec. 39 is as follows:

In the "forward" part of the disc, sectors are being electropositively charged. Hence mi is increased.
The opposite is arranged for the trailing sectors, so as to produce a decreased mi. Rotation of these sectors having a mass (inertial) differential may cause the forward-acting thrust as indicated.
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Page 75
42. The Impulse Effect in the Force Developed by a Simple Capacitor in Vacuum.
Leesburg, VA; April 7, 1956.
In the dynamic phase of the electrogravitic interaction, the force developed by a system of electric dipoles is believed to vary with the rate-of-change of the voltage between the dipoles.
This force, independent of the movement of ions or any mechanical reaction therefrom, operates in the direction of negative-to-positive as the voltage is increasing, and, presumably, in the opposite direction as the voltage is decreasing.
In vacuum (10-6 mm Hg or less), an interesting effect is observed.
Any simple vacuum capacitor will appear to flash as the voltage increases, and, concurrent with the vacuum spark, an impulse force is noted in the direction of the negative to positive. It is noted that the wave shape is as follows:

Page 76
According to theory, the impulse is associated with the recovery of potential and not with the rapid decrease brought on by the vacuum spark.
Two possibilities present themselves in explanation: (1) the decrease in potential is too rapid to produce an observable force mechanically, or (2) a balancing effect serving to prevent the force from being created may be present in the k-mu (ether) medium.
Therefore, since the downward voltage produces no force, the upward voltage is responsible for the observed force.
There is evidence to support the belief that a local balancing effect actually exists in the k-mu medium or field between or surrounding the electrodes, in that the effect is primarily observed when the voltage change is caused by a vacuum spark or flash between the electrodes and not when wholly due to a chopper in the external circuit.
The principal movement of the dipoles is therefore always associated with (and probably caused by) the vacuum spark or flash.
Page 77
43. The Nature of the Vacuum Spark, as related to the initiation of an electrogravitic impulse.
The vacuum spark is apparently not due to a flow of electrons, although a flow of electrons may accompany the discharge.
Initiation of the "flash", as it is called from observations in the dark, appear to be related to anode conditions such as shape (field intensity) and the metal comprising the anode. In a recently evacuated system, flashing starts at a comparatively low voltage, 30-40 KV. It becomes less frequent at this low range and then ceases altogether. A higher voltage is then required --- 50 to 60 KV, which causes a succession of flashes which, in turn, cease. At 80-90 KV, flashing is intense for a time, but finally ceases. At 130-140 KV, the flashing is quite intense and cease only after a considerable time. It is believed that a threshold may be reached between 150-200 KV where flashing will be sustained and continuous.
The electrogravitic forces developed by the rapid succession of impulses which accompany the flashing in the higher voltage ranges is indeed a first order effect, measurable in thousands of dynes, even with small scale equipment.
While the nature of the flash (or its cause) is not wholly understood, it is reasonable a this stage to suspect positive conduction, at least as the initiator. Emission from the anode, bombarding the cathode, may (and probably does) release electrons which contribute to the electrical conduction. Since the effect takes place in very high vacuum, it is unlikely that atmospheric ions or the like are involved. Occluded atoms or molecules are probably pulled from the anode material, and these, of course, may be oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, or any of the atmospheric gases. Metallic ions of the anode material may be involved, or perhaps even microscopic pieces of metal.
One of the spectacular features of the flash is the colored luminescence which appears on or immediately adjacent to the anode and/or the shifting areas of light and color across the face of the anode. The color is reddish --- like hot metal, although in reality the surface is not hot: Cadmium is especially active in this respect although other metals reveal the same red coloration. White star-like spots of considerable brilliance appear on the cathode.
Page 79
44. Scale of Beneficiation
Leesburg, VA; April 7, 1956.

The above scale indicates a rough approximation based upon the hypothesis that normal g of 980 cm/sec2 represents an equal amount of inertia, so that the g/i ratio is unity. As the ratio decreases, the potential equivalent increases.
Energy is required to reduce weight, this energy increases exponentially as g is decreased linearly. The inertial mass (mi) increases exponentially to the same extent as the potential. Excitation is represented as potential and expressed in ghos. Decay of gravitational isotopes results from the evolution of this energy and the resulting decrease of potential.
Page 80
45. Possible Excitation of Gravitational Isotopes by Friction (Triboisotopes)
Leesburg, VA; Aug 26, 1956.
The possibility that loss of weight may be produced by friction should not be overlooked.
If a state of excitation, similar to that induced by uv light, can be induced by inter-molecular friction or by constant friction, the loss of weight may be readily detectable.
In Sec. 7, p. 21, the possibility that fatigue in metals, resulting from inter-molecular friction, may cause a reduction in weight was discussed at length. It was pointed out that coulomb damping may be accompanied by loss of weight in powdered susceptible materials.
A simple test may be as follows:

Quartz tube filled with sand, clay or other susceptible material. Weighed before and after shaking, the entire quartz tube with contents may show a loss of weight due to inter-particle friction.
Page 81
It may be found desirable to irradiate the tube and contents with strong sunlight or uv light while shaking is in progress. [N.B. – Ultrasonic resonance plus laser]
Beside the use of artificial light, sunlight may be intensified by quartz lenses or by a large parabolic reflector as follows;

Concentrated irradiation by sunlight plus violent shaking.
Using a large 60-inch Sperry Anti-aircraft searchlight mirror (without glass door), the radiation of the sun is focused upon the quartz tube filled with sand or clay or other susceptible material while being violently shaken by a motor device (not shown).
If effects are observed, quantitative measurements of the effects of the following may be undertake:
Shaking only  --- various speeds, etc.
IR radiation only.
IR " with visible.
Sunlight (intensified).
UV only.
And all combinations of these.
Page 82
46. Excitation of gravitational isotopes by friction irradiation and distribution and accumulation of the effects by conduction.  
Leesburg, VA; Sept 9, 1956.
In Sec. 24, P. 48, it was proposed that rock ma be caused to lose weight by being dragged over desert sand which has been irradiated for some time by sunlight.
In Sec. 45, P. 80, it was proposed that friction alone may cause a loss of weight.
It is now proposed that a large effect may be caused by both.

Method which may have been used by the ancients to cause a loss of weight in very large and heavy rocks.
The effect would decay, causing the return of original weight, according to a half-life curve dependent upon the nature of the rock contents.
Page 83
47. Loss of Weight by Grinding or Pulverizing.
Leesburg, VA Sept 9, 1956
In the foregoing, it is suggested that fraction may be effective in bringing about a loss of weight, and that the loss of weight is temporary (after friction has ceased), so that the original weight will eventually return.
This may mean that a given weight of rock (of certain composition) may actually lose weight when pulverized and that the weight of the freshly pulverized material will be least and therefore increase according to the following type of curve.

During this decay period heat is evolved (thermoactivity).
Conversely, by observing accurately the increase in weight of certain pulverized materials  (aluminates, silicates, etc.) the curve may be constructed and the approximate date of grinding may be determined.
Page 84
48. Spontaneous Evolution of Heat (Thermoactivity) of recently pulverized silicates or aluminates.
Leesburg VA; Sept 9, 1956.
Following the grinding of certain materials, a state of excitation is maintained for some time. This excitation gradually diminishes according to the same half-life curve which represents its return to normal weight. See Sec. 47., P. 83.
It is proposed that the foregoing be tested as follows:
Freshly ground material is placed in an ice calorimeter with a sensitive thermocouple in the center of the mass of material. Readings taken at frequent intervals for a period of at least 3 months.
It is believed that the energy represented in thermoactivity is that of an excited state in the electronic shells of the atoms or in the relations (valency electrons or holes) within certain molecular configurations. This energy is supplied initially by the mechanical action of friction (and/or irradiation) during the process of grinding. This energy is gradually dissipated as heat and the rate of evolution falls off with time.
Page 85
49. Discussion of Loss of Weight by Friction as present in Nature.
Leesburg, VA; Sept 9, 1956.
The mechanism of dust storms, where wind causes fine particles of sand or clay to rub over one another for a considerable distance may be responsible for a temporary loss of weight. The same effect may be present under water where the current causes sand to flow to and fro (as in wave actions) or straightway (as in rivers).
Due to the presence of sunlight irradiation, the phenomena of "rising" sand wind long noticed in the Sahara may be evidence of the above effect. Sand grains rubbing over other sand grains, by saltation, by the action of the wind, may cause the more susceptible grains to rise en masse and actually to loft to a considerable height, higher than they would normally go under the action of wind alone.
Aircraft flying at great altitudes over the Sahara often encounter these sand winds which are difficult to account for merely on the basis of wind-blown dust.
Page 86
50. The Possibilities of a New Type of Time-Space Data Preservation. A Method of Recording or "Memory".
Leesburg, VA; Jan 30, 1957.
All methods of recording music, sounds or time-series data, up to the present, have required the use of elements which are electrically or mechanically moving at a constant rate.
The phonograph is a classic example. Here, sounds are translated into mechanical vibrations which are recorded in a wax plate or equivalent which is moving at a constant rate. The magnetic tape or wire recorder is similar, except that magnetic variations are impresses upon the moving element.
In computing machines so-called electronic brains, memory devices are employed for the storage of data. These may be in the form of magnetic wire or tape records or, if greater speeds are required, mercury (transducer) memory tubes or television-like sustained images. Memory tubes require a recirculating sonic or ultrasonic path wherein the data is stored, and the cathode ray systems require continuous rescanning systems. Such recirculating or rescanning systems require a continuing source of energy in order to preserve the data indefinitely.
Page 87
It is suggested that a kind of memory may be inherent in the dielectric materials under certain conditions, so that, in effect, they may remember the manner of recharging. It appears possible that such memory may persist as long as the charge is retained.
The same characteristic may be present in certain magnetic materials and in a fashion which may be homologous.
Now therefore, it would appear to be desirable to explore these possibilities.
In general, it is suggested that two new forms of memory may be possible:
(1) Dielectric or capacitor memory.
(2) Magnetic or ferrite memory.
A simple form of capacitor memory, for purposes of illustration is as follows:

Page 88.
By charging the capacitor at a variable rate as:

Domain progression. The electric orientation of dipoles proceeds at an irregular rate according to pattern prescribed by data feed. Upon reducing the electric field during subsequent discharge of capacitor, dipoles return to random (discharged) alignment progressively, according same or reversed pattern.
By introducing a leakage path, other and further paths may be produced.

Page 89
Capacitor Bridge for Exploratory Measurements

Procedure:
Charge A2 to –20KV steadily and without stopping.
Charge A to +20 KV irregularly and with frequent stops.
During charging, B-B is grounded by switch S, then switch is closed to meter M for duration of discharge.
Any irregularity in rate of discharge of A will show as a temporary imbalance of the bridge and a voltage indicated at M. (Brush recording galvanometer). Rapid transient imbalances will be most pronounced.
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Page 90
51. Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point
Leesburg, VA; Feb. 1, 1957.
This is a continuation of discussion set forth in the Sec. 5, p. 15 of this record book. It relates to experiments conducted at Pearl Harbor Navy Yard in 1950-51. These preliminary experiments gave positive results, indicating a real shift of the mid-points with respect to each other with time.
Successive tests over an extended period of time and under conditions usually called equivalent revealed continuing (sometimes gradual and sometimes abrupt) circuit changes causing the indicated shift of (relative) mid-point.
It is thought that this phenomena relates to the action of the so-called sidereal radiation electrometer and that the variations or shift of the mid-point may have lunar, solar and sidereal cycles as recorded by the electrometer.
With automatic charging and discharging of the capacitors and means for continuous recording, it is believed that a pattern similar to the electrometer readings may be revealed.
The following circuit is suggested:
Page 91

Switch 1 closes for 30 sec each 3 minutes. Variac is so adjusted as to zero galvanometer 4 but at mid-point of 3, when 2 is closed. When 2 is opened, a voltage will be recorded at 5. If, in the preliminary adjustments this voltage is too high to be conveniently recorded, the recorder may be zeroed by adjusting the variac. This should then be followed by zeroing galvanometer 4 by changing position of slider 3. At this point, both the recorder and the galvanometer would be zeroed. Continuing operations will reveal a systematic shift of capacitor mid-point as shown by te record of voltage.
Page 92
52. Excitation by Impact of Highly-Charged Particles.
Nov 16, 1957
In Sec. 15, it was suggested that beneficiation might be achieved through ion separation. A development of this idea is as follows:
When the charge of a mass (according to electrogravitic theory) is made more negative, the mass becomes exogravitic during the interval of change. The exogravitic rate is a function of the rate of change of the electric charge.
Similarly, when the charge changes in he positive direction, the mass becomes endogravitic during the change.
Representation is as follows:

Hence, if a body is positively charged and loses that charge while in contact with a grounded (or negatively charged) mass, it is possible that the sudden and intense exogravitic radiation will be transmitted to and absorbed by the grounded mass.
Page 93
This suggests the use of an electrified sand blast.
***FIGURE
Since the positively charged sand is forcibly thrown against the susceptible material and loses its charge while in contact with it, the exogravitic radiation level is picked up by the material and diffuses through it in much of the same manner as heat. The susceptible material becomes progressively warmer (in terms of gravitational potential) until it potential balances the incoming potential (expressed in millighos). The electrogravitic capacity or retentiveness then determines the persistence of the effect.
During excitation, the higher millighos value should accompany the loss of weight. The interesting feature seems to be that the excited state acts like a heated state thermally and that it may represent another kind of "heat", engaging in conduction, radiation, and temperature equilibrium.
Conductivity of gravitic excitation through a material may differ markedly from one material to another. It is suggested that certain basalts, lavas and clays, perhaps also gravitic materials, silicas and some of the rare earth metals and tantalum may be found susceptible and useful in this connection.
High voltages (discharges in air) may produce the effect, especially where the voltages and momentary currents are very high as in a lightning bolt. A solid or gas which is near ground potential is suddenly struck by positive ions and rapidly moving dust particles. The result could be gravitic excitation of the solid or gas. It is conceivable that atmospheric nitrogen should be so excited --- producing the so-called ball-of-fire which has been observed to glow and to drift around like a toy balloon. See Sec. 4, Test No.2.
It is interesting to speculate also that the ""Brown Mountain Lights" may be caused by intense atmospheric electric gradients, with the ground negatively charged.
The light of the aurora may, in part at least, be due to the bombardment of crystal nitrogen by positive particles from the sun. An investigation of the luminosity of crystal nitrogen under positive rays may be in order.
Page 95
53. Dipole Motion Due to Excitation from Positive Rays.
Nov 16, 1957.
In Sec. 52, the idea that gravitic potential could be affected by the impact (stoppage) of positive rays was developed.

Such a material would lose weight in direct relation to the gravitic potential, that is, the mass would tend to become an antimass. Potential as expressed in millighos would increase until a balance is reached between the potential of the target and the potential of the individual positive rays upon contact with the target. The target, upon being excited, would be exogravitic, that is, it would have a higher gravitic potential than the ambient. The "g" gradient would be outward.
A dipole would look like:

with a g-force pushing the popsitive pole away.
Page 96
54. Static Counterbalance Produced by Positive Ray Excitation.
Nov 17, 1957.

Mass A suspended by a spring for observation of weight. Placed in vacuum chamber B, evacuated to 2.5 x 10-5 mm Hg, ionizing wire C serving as a source of canal rays which strike mass A at high velocity.
Upon stoppage of the canal rays, the high excitation potential is conducted to Mass A and distributes through it (in much the same effect as heating. Mass A gains gravitic potential to a value equaling the potential of the canal rays (during discharge).
Mass A then loses weight as it gains excitation potential, and rises within the vacuum chamber as the spring becomes less extended.
Page 97
55. Excitation by Annihilation of Positive Holes.
Nov. 18, 1957
In the foregoing sections, reference has been made to the possible excitation effects brought on by contact with charged masses or ions which initially possess a positive charge and are subsequently grounded, that is, grounded during contact with material susceptible to excitation.
Reference is to matter or ions. In the present section, it is suggested that so-called (valence) holes --- (See Sec. 9) might, upon annihilation, represent the source of a strong exogravitic radiation. Such radiation could be picked up by a susceptible electrode material which, in turn, would become excited --- gaining in potential Pg.
Ordinary transistor materials and methods may be employed, essential as follows:

Page 98
56. On the Meaning of "Field Shaping".
Dec. 27, 1957.
In nearly every experiment involving dielectrics and high voltage gradients, the shape of the field is a factor which must be considered.
A classical example is the force exhibited by a dielectric mass tending to draw it into a field (electric) if greater flux density. The force so developed is a function of the dielectric constant of the material. As:

Such a condition is present where electrodes are arranged as follows:

Page 99
Such a condition may be brought about by the shaping of a dielectric section as:

In these cases, the voltage gradients (both capacitance and resistance) are non-linear and look something like this:

Shape of field in dielectric sections.
The curve of potential is practically the same. Hence, in the small end, the flux density is greatest due to the requirements of capacitance distribution (upon charging), and then changes somewhat to meet the resistance distribution as steady-state current conditions take over.
The experiments to date have indicated that dielectric sections so shaped appear to move or possess a force (as a whole) as follows:

Motion of dielectric section away from end containing greatest electric flux density.
Page 100
This suggests that, if a dielectric fluid is present (perhaps ether), it is moved in the opposite direction thru the solid dielectric material. Perhaps a kind of "ether pump", as:

In the case of experiments on dynamic counterbary, the forces are similar probably.

Upper dome electrode (usually +; lower dome electrode (usually -)
Or:
In the case of units in multiple, where polarity is reversed in alternative units, field shaping may prevail over the usual neg-to-pos polarity arrangement, as dynamic counterbary sections in multiple connection:

Dynamic counterbary sections in multiple connection.
Page 101
In the foregoing, it would appear that ether, as a fluid dielectric with a K of unity, permeating the solid dielectric which is shaping the field, will move in the direction of the greater flux density as required by the classical experiment (p. 98).
The solid or physical elements of the system (which so shape the field) are moved in the opposite direction. These reactive forces and the motion resulting therefrom may be up or down (or in any direction) and conceivably can be used for propulsion.
In general, it appears that field shaping is of utmost importance in placing a region of high flux near an electrode or mass offering high reluctance to the flow of ether induced by the creation of the high flux.
The high flux creates a center of attraction for the ether which continues to flow so long as the flux exists. At the starting and stopping of the flow, inertial effects may conceivably be noted which are related to K and mu.
In the gyron in vacuum, the following arrangement is proposed:

If plate B is less permeable to ether than the grid or plate A, the flow being thru B into the high flux may cause the observed motion.
Page 102
57. Units in Multiple for Dynamic Counterbary.
Winston-Salem, NC,; Jan 1, 1958.
In the foregoing section, the use of field shaping was considered in multiple arrangement. The advantage of multiple connections is, of course, that lower voltages may be employed as the answer to larger sizes. Dynamic counterbary units then begin to look like this:

Regions of high flux density immediately about electrodes cause electrodes to be lifted. Airflow (plus ether flow?) may be in the opposite direction.
Shaped dielectric sections:

Page 103.
58. An Analysis of the Adamski Photograph in the Light of Recent Laboratory Findings.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 5, 1958.
This may be a bit of fantasy or it could be significant. It is a fact, nevertheless, that the behavior of laboratory models is quite similar to that alleged for the "Venusian" scout ship, and, what is even more provocative, the construction appears similar in many of the more important details. On examination of the photograph (reconstructed photographs and orthographic projections) is in order.

Note: Apex of cathode (shaped high flux) may be the focus of the parabolic anode (canopy), if indeed it proves to be parabolic. It could be te focus of a hyperbolic shape.
* Inside the Space Ships --- Adamski --- p. 128a(1).
Page 104
In the laboratory, the following shape gives a lifting force when charged as indicated:

In this diagram, the central (power storage) pylon is conceived as a gravitic dipole --- charged ends at a high potential (gravitic excitation) differential. Electric differential, it would appear, may accompany the gravitic differential.
Page 105
59. The Concept of the Gravitic Dipole as an Energy Storage Means.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 5, 1958.
In the foregoing study of the Adamski Venusian scout ship and in the descriptive material pertaining to it found in the Adamski publication, the central pylon is referred to as place where energy is stored for the propulsion of the ship. It is stated that this central column must be recharged (by the mother ship), presumably as a storage battery is recharged.
The implication is that te central pylon is a kind of storage capacitor for electrostatic energy or perhaps even a pile of high capacity electret wafers serving the same purpose --- the stored energy being in the electric form (simple electrostatic nature).
To retain sufficient energy, if such a storage column is simply electrical, very high K materials and very high voltages would be required. Such high electrical fields would be difficult to contain without adequate insulation, especially thru the cabin compartment. Even with the very highest K materials available now (say 10,000 to 30,000 K), it is unbelievable that enough electrical energy would be stored to provide the propulsion and dynamic counterbary required.
It appears necessary therefore, to look further into the nature of the energy storage means. The following system appears worthy of study:
Page 106
If a column 16’ long by 2’ diameter, made of a suitably susceptible, highly retentive. High capacity material for gravitic excitation were used, the energy-storage requirements might easily be met. The column would constitute a gravitic dipole. It could be initially energized by a method such as described in Secs. 52-55 (electro-excitation), as:

Spraying continued until Pg of the lower end of the column increases to described value (2000 millighos or more). This is equivalent to a lofting moment of 2 g’s. At this Pg, the electrical potential may be formed to remain at some high value positive as a permanent state --- at least until the gravitic dipole is discharged or decays to zero. In this respect, the column is an electric (as well as gravitic) dipole when it is charged and the energy resides both as electric storage and gravitic excitation. Most of the energy in storage, however, would be represented as the gravitic excitation of the lower end. The electric field would merely accompany the gravitic difference of potential.
Page 107
60. Luminescence from highly-excited Materials; Gravito-Luminescence.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 5, 1958.
In connection with the gravitic excitation of materials, luminescence of the material itself as well as the surrounding materials (or gases) seems reasonable indeed. This is the type of thing one would expect if he were to attempt to account for the glow around soaucers hovering or in flight, as reported by so many observers.
Nothing, of course, of this nature has as yet been observed in the laboratory, and it is pure speculation as to its color and general behavior or even its existence. However, one may be able to foretell some of the properties.
In general, the radiation may be similar to tribo-luminescence, may actually be associated with tribo-luminescence, since friction also produces counterbary. Where gravitic excitation is carried to higher values, say 1 gho or above, considerable energy is in storage. Such energy undoubtedly would be found to have some have some radiant manifestation, since there would exist a steep gradient in the surrounding field. This gradient would dominate with the square of the distance. It would be greatest, therefore, immediately adjacent to the excited body, and especially around sharp points or edges where the field is steep. The effect may be similar, therefore, to electrical discharge (corona), may be present along with electrical corona and may, in some respects, be indistinguishable form it. Hence, saucers may glow from gravitic corona or electric corona or both.
Page 108.
In atmospheric air, electric corona is of purple color. A breakdown spark is blue. These spectral characteristics have been studied in great detail in the laboratory, along with the spectra of other gases (and solids) under electric bombardment or excitation.
Gravitic luminescence may come directly from the emitting surface or from the surrounding gas as gravitic corona. The spectra may be entirely different from electric corona, and more than likely it is quite different.
For example, on the basis of electric corona, it is difficult to account for the oft-reported flame-red color noted in saucers in flight. It is equally difficult to explain the shift in color from blue-white to flame-red, as the saucer maneuvers. These colors are not found in simple electric corona in air, and a change in voltage would not cause a change in color.
The flame-red color, therefore, is a stranger insofar as electric corona discharge is concerned. It is possible that this color is typical of gravitic corona
Page 109
In atmospheric air, at higher gravitic excitations or field strengths, the red color may become orange, orange-white, white or blue. This suggests the possibility of a continuous spectrum type of radiation similar to heat (thermo-luminescence).
This would mean, then, that the lower end of the dipole (column) shown on Page 106 would glow visibly when sufficiently excited by the spray of positive ions. Starting from a dull red, the luminescence might increase both in intensity and frequency (from red to blue) as the gravitic excitation continues. In this way, the nature (intensity and color) of the luminescence might be a convenient indicator of the degree of gravitic excitation. In other words, the color would reveal the amount of static counterbary as well as the gravitic excitation or total stored energy.
A gravitic dipole (as shown in p. 106) would appear luminous at the lower end but not a the upper end. At max. excitation, the color gradation would range from blue (at the lower end) thru white, orange-violet, orange, red and dull red to black (no radiation at the top).
The flame-red radiation would not necessarily be hot (thermally) in itself or represent a thermally hot surface. It would, however, represent a source of high energy or the storage of that energy (as gravitic potential) in matter.
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Page 110.
61. The Use of the Toroid in Field Shaping
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 12, 1958.
It is a basic requirement in shaping the electric field (p. 98) that the electric lines converge upon the cathode (as in Case No. 1). This normally requires a small cathode for high flux fields. Where a central pylon is used (as in p. 104 and 106), the high flux must be concentrated at the lower (cathode) end. A type of electrode is therefore suggested which accomplishes such field shaping. It is the toroid.

Such a curve of flux density fulfills the requirement described on p. 99. The center of the toroid could then be the focus of the parabola. The center hole would be just large enough to receive the dielectric pylon, with lower electrode at that center.
Page 111
62. Possible Magnetic Components in the Venusian Scout Ship --- Continued from Par. 3, Sec. 58
1-12-58
The main power coil, focused inside the cathode toroid, creates a field which saturates the lower (cathode) end of the pylon. The upper coil may be used to completely degauss the upper end o the pylon, or, working in conjunction with the lower coil, to distribute the field more evenly thru the pylon. Between these extremes, it could easily serve as as a central device for dynamic counterbary.
By adding the magnetic component, total counterbary may be greatly increased.

  
  

This effect would add to the force obtained electrically.
Page 112
63. Rotation of the Cathode-Toroid vs the Control Grid, as a Gyro-Stabilizer.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 12, 1958
It is apparent that some form of gyro-stabilization would assist the Venusian scout ship in maintaining course, and preventing wobble, both while hovering and while in flight. Such stabilization may be accomplished by rotating the cathode-toroid in one direction and the control grid in the opposite direction. The main body of the ship would then not be subject to rotational forces.
It is assumed that the 3-ball system for horizontal stability control (canting) would not rotate and would be used to set the basic direction of flight and counter any precession caused by the rotating system.
Rotation of the toroid (containing the power coil) and the control grid can be achieved by the electromagnetic coupling between the magnetic and electric fields. Forces applied and hence the angular moments would be equal and opposite between the two oppositely rotating members. Speed of rotation would be a function of the current and the magnetic field. If the current for the dynamic counterbary passes also through the toroidal coil. The rotation would be controlled entirely by the current, as created by the voltage on the control grid.
Page 113
64. Field Shaping in Positive Ray Excitation.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan 13, 1958.
In Sec. 54, the use of positive rays for purposes of excitation in static counterbary was discussed. This represented what seemed to be a development of the ideas set forth in Sec. 52 wherein excitation was produced by the impact of highly-charged (material) particles.
The present section is concerned with the excitation possibilities of focused positive rays from a spherically-shaped anode of wire grid construction. Such a device would be especially useful in preliminary tests of susceptible materials in small quantities. Such tests would be conducted in vacuum and could be carried on with the material placed upon a small dish or pan atop a spring balance, capable of indicating the loss of weight as excitation proceeds. The arrangement would be as follows:

Sample would be in full view during excitation for studying color changes in gravito-luminescence.
Page 114
65. High Gravitic Potential Difference and the Phenomenon of Dielectricity.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 13, 198.
There appears to be good reason to speculate at this time upon the effects attending high differences of gravitational (gravitic) potential If the potential gradient is exceedingly high (high flux density), the large energy difference would, it seems, attempt to energize itself. Thus, a kind of energy flow would be created from the high potential region o the low potential region. If the distance were small, this flow would be intense and undoubtedly would manifest itself in many curious ways.
Such a flow of energy we shall hereafter call "dielectricity".
Dielectricity would, therefore, be present more or less in every situation where there is a gravitational gradient. Its vector of flow would always be from the higher to the lower gravitational potential.
The situation is analogous to the flow of electricity (in the classical sense) from the positive to the negative potential or from the higher to the lower electrical potential.
Undoubtedly, such a flow of dielectricity would possess many interesting parallels to a flow of electricity. Both would represent a flow of energy from a higher to a lower potential.
Page 115
It is interesting to speculate upon the nature of the materials capable of conducting dielectricity and what materials might serve as insulators. One finds not only an analogy to electricity but also to heat, but the analogy with heat may be close in some respects (as in the conductivity or temperature distribution along a wire) and not in other respects as in phenomena arising from resistance to the flow. Resistance to the passage of current (flow) in electricity transforms the potential difference into heat. What happens when there is resistance to he flow of dielectricity, we can only guess.
Suppose, after we find a material capable of conducting dielectricity, we form it into a coil. What do we have generated in the place of a magnetic field? --- or is it a magnetic field?
What takes place when two plates of high gravitational potential are close together? Is there repulsion, as in static electricity?
And what if the plates have a high difference in gravitational (gravitic) potential? Is there attraction? And is there, in this case, a high flux density and a storage of energy in the space between the plates, acting like a capacitor? Is the energy stored in such a capacitor, and resident in the space between the plates, gravitational or something one step further.
Page 116
One may define a gravitational potential as a "pressure". The gradient between a high potential (high pressure) region in space and a low potential (low pressure) region is manifested as a gravity field (or just "g"). The vectors of this g-field are identical to the dielectric field vectors and both represent forces.
Hence, one would be led to believe that a flow of dielectricity, if resisted, would cause a force upon the body of the conductor --- much like the resistance to the flow of water against the walls of a tube through which it is flowing.
In the case of a gravitic (or dielectric) conductor, the factor creating resistance is gravitational reluctance (opposite to gravitational permeance or permeability). Such gravitational reluctance in the conductor of dielectricity would cause a force in the direction of the flow. In space, this force is simply gravity. Hence, it would appear that gravitational reluctance is created by (or equivalent to) gravitational mass Mg (as distinguished from inertial mass Mi.
The quality of conductivity of dielectricity is the opposite of gravitational reluctance, hence it is lack of Mg. Theoretically, a vacuum (complete absence of ponderable mater) is the best conductor.
Page 117
Conversely, ponderable matter of highest Mg represents a conductor of the greatest gravitational reluctance (resistance) and is therefore the best insulator of dielectricity.
This is virtually the opposite of the situation regarding the conductor of electricity --- hence the designation, "di-electricity".
Summarizing then:
Electricity --- conducted by metals, insulated by vacuum
Dielectricity --- conducted by vacuum, insulated by metals.
Curiously, and this does indeed seem strange, the best insulator for the prevention of flow (loss in the central pylon (p. 106) is its weight (Mg). As a gravitic dipole with high potential at its lower end (cathode), the highest resistance would be provided by large values of Mg; this resistance causing an upward or lifting force in the transformation of the stored energy to motion and finally to heat resulting from resistance to that motion.
Such a pylon may be provided with lead (wafer) insulators dividing the pylon into sections of increasing gravitic potential in the direction of the lower or cathode end.
* any material of high Mg.
Page 118
66. The Push-Pull Effect of the Control Grid.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 19, 1958.
In Sec. 56, the effects of high and low flux density were discussed, particularly as an explanation for the observed force or motion imparted to arcuate electrodes. The effect is determined by the direction of the flux gradient.

If, in the above figure, the anode is a grid of fine wires and the cathode is a ball, the force (as indicated) is especially pronounced. Reversal of polarity does not reverse the direction of the force. Due to increased current flow resulting from emission of neg ions and/or electrons from the grid, the reversed polarity does not appear to be efficient.
If the wind (specifically positive) is placed between two cathodes, as indicated in Figure 2,

Page 119
The force (as indicated) is virtually doubled.
It appears that the screen grid anode then attracts the ball cathode and repels the canopy cathode, so that the entire assembly moves in response to the force as shown (f). Thus we have named the push-pull effect.
This effect may be obtained in units such as Figure 3:

where the direction of the arculate surfaces create flux gradients to produce the force as indicated, or (Figure 4),

as a succession of units in parallel where the elements of each unit are concentrically arranged with the ball cathodes at the centers. The force of each (and every) unit is additive and directed as indicated.
Page 120
67. The Cylindrical Design of a Unit to Produce the Push-Pull Effect.
Winston-Salem, NC; Jan. 19, 1958
In the Vega Aircraft notebook, beginning Dec. 1, 1942 and ending sometime after May 2, 1944, and specifically described on Feb 4, 1943, a cylindrical system employing a shaped dielectric is described. Such a system is as follows (Figure 1):

Dielectric B has greater K and mass than dielectric sector A. Direction of force is as indicated.
This arrangement is the equivalent of that shown in the preceding Sec. 66 (Fig. 1), with the addition of 2 dielectroics, it being understood that Fig. 1 (p. 118) could represent the sectional view of a sphere or a cylinder. In either case, the requirement of field shaping and the resultant field gradient would be met. The force would be (as indicated) in the direction of flux gradient. In Fig. 1 (p. 120) the greater force is in the direction of the dielectric having the greater K or m (or both).
The use of the wire grid augments this effect so as to add the push-pull feature.
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Page 121.
Such an arrangement then looks like (Figure 2):

Or, without the Km differential, simply as follows (Fig. 3):

May be filled with fluid or solid dielectric material, or separated in vacuum. Grid occupies about 120 degree sector.
In Fig 3, the location of the grid will determine the direction of the force, rather, the position of the dielectrics. Rotation of the grid 180 degrees will reverse the direction of he resulting force acting upon the unit as a whole.
High K, high m dielectric material, either as a fluid filling all of the inside of the can or as a solid encapsulating material will, it appears, increase the force. That material which is not in the active sector comprising approx 120 degrees where the grid is located will not add to the force, nor will it detract.
Page 122
The force for a given voltage should be a function of both K and m. In vacuum, with a K of unity and m = 0, the force should be minimum. It should increase with the use of a fluid dielectric such as oil, pyranol or carbon tetrachloride and even further with solid dielectrics which, at the same time, may serve to encapsulate the elements in the can.
In this connection, it may be pointed out that the solid dielectrics may take the form of tubes arranged as follows (Fig 4):

Drawing expanded radially for sake of illustration.
Force is always in the direction from the center (inner) cathode toward the center of the control grid. The control grid may be turned into other quadrants or the entire unit (encapsulated) may be turned in order to change direction of the force.
Page 123
68. Cylindrical Units in Parallel
Winston-Salem, NC; an 19, 1958.
It is readily apparent that the units described in Sec. 67 may be of commercial value in propulsion of ships, railroad or other land vehicles. In such practical application, units would be arranged in multiple.
Control of the direction of force would be accomplished merely by rotating the entire can if the elements are rigidly encapsulated ore by rotating the control grid with respect to the can if the elements are oil (or heavy fluid) insulated.
Units in parallel would look like:

In the above illustration, the cans are stationary and the grid is movable about the control axis.
Thrust is determined by the voltage applied (the current being determined by the resistance of the dielectric and the transformation requirements to kinetic energy).
Page 124
69. Self-Adjusting (Ionic) Oscillator and the Use of High Voltage RF in the Propulsion of Space Craft.
Winston-Salem, NC; Mar. 25, 1958.
Using the push-pull system of three electrodes (p. 118), it is possible that a resonant circuit can be established when the voltage between the outer two electrodes (and presumably also the lift) could be enormously increased. Such a system could use the three electrodes as a self-adjusting (ionic)oscillator.

In the above system, the DC exciter voltage need only be sufficient to establish oscillation in the resonant circuit. The high voltage for the principal lift would come from the delta (or equivalent) inductor.
Page 125.
70. Dielectromotance (The Generation of Dielectricity)
Winston-Salem, NC; march 31, 1958.
In Sec 65, I speculated upon the existence of high-gravitic potential differences and upon a flow resulting from such potential differences. In many respects such a flow would be analogous to the flow of electricity (or current). The flow arising from a difference in gravitic potential might be termed "dielectric current", in that it would presumably be conducted by dielectrics.
If one subscribed to the idea of an ether, such a flow could be viewed as a movement of the ether. The flow, of necessity, would be circulatory, creating one or more vortices.
It was pointed out that materials may offer varying amounts of resistance to such a flow, thus giving rise to a force of ponderomotive nature acting upon the interposed material. Such a force may conceivably be similar to, or perhaps indistinguishable from, the force of gravity.
The flow of dielectricity, whether or not it is responsible for gravity, results from a field in which there is a difference in potential --- not electric, but attending and usually created by an electric field.
Page 127
In Fig 2, the flow again is from the region of highest to lowest flux density, hence from the point electrode in the center to the toroidal electrode around it, and returning axially, as indicated.
Assuming the arcuate surface (in Fig 1) or the toroidal surface (in Fig 2) to have a gravitic (or dielectric) potential at or near the ambient, I is the center electrode which has the high gravitic potential --- at least, insofar as the generation of dielectricity is concerned.
The situation is similar to that of a battery and closed loop of an electric circuit, where the one side of the battery is grounded, as:

Another method of generating dielectricity (in greater volume) is the series or cascade arrangement, as follows:

Page 128

Generator of dielectricity as a 3-element dielectric ring with highly charged electrode (+) midwday between the center electrode (-) and the outer ring electrode (-_showing radial flow in the ring or disc from the center outward and returning through the environment (outer field) to the axis.
It is understood that while, in this drawing, the electric field is (-) to (+) to (-), the generator is equally operative in the (+) to (-) to (+) polarity. Reversal of polarity does not affect the direction of flow of the generated dielectricity.
Hence, it is readily understood that such a device will operate on AC, and at any frequency, always causing a flow of dielectricity from the center outward to the ring, thence returning through the exterior field to the axis.
The flow pattern is essentially two toroids with one side joined --- hence, interlocked and inseparable.

Sectional view of interlocked toroidal vortices.
Page 129
71. The Flow of Dielectricity
Walkertown, NC; April 7, 1958.
In the foregoing section, the generator of so-called dielectricity was discussed. It was pointed out that a flow could be created by a non-linear electric gradient and that the direction of that flow would be from the region of highest electric flux density to the region of lowest flux density.
In other words, a difference of potential is created which is not expressible in terms of electricity but which flows if a return circuit is provided. The flow does not necessarily follow a path o electrical conductivity (such as a wire) but arches through the environment in the manner of a magnetic field.
Preliminary experiments have indicated that the flow prefers glass or plastics as a path, hence, exhibits the characteristics of a flow capable of conduction. Since the materials revealing such conductivity are generally dielectrics, the entity comprising the flow has been named "dielectricity".
In summary, therefore, "dielectricity" may be defined as "an entity capable of flowing" which is "placed in motion" by a non-linear electric gradient and which flows from the region of high electric flux density (by the shortest route) to the region of lowest flux density, thence returning by an exterior circuit formed by materials which do not necessarily conduct electricity.
Page 130
If the behavior of such a flow is similar to that of magnetism or electricity, it is to be expected that an increase in conductivity of the circuit elements (or conversely, a decrease in resistance) will result in an increase in the flow itself. For example, in a magnetic circuit the more of the circuit which contains iron, the greater is the magnetic flux density. This is usually expressed as a decrease in the air gap. The factor introduced is the integrated mu for all sections of the magnetic circuit.
In the present instance, where we may be talking about a dielectric phenomenon and a flow of dielectricity, the integrated K may be the factor which is significant. On the other hand, if the characteristics of the flow of dielecticity or the results of a difference in potential of dielectricity are gravitational, then the significant factor may be mg or the gravitational mass of the circuit sections. If both are involved, as perhaps an electromagnetic phenomenon, then both K and Mg are important factors in the circuit. The final answer to this question cannot be given until precise tests of various materials can be completed.
Page 131
One characteristic of the flow of dieletricity appears to be its ability to create a force on the material through which it is slowing. It may be said that it was largely through the indications of its forceful effects that its presence was initially detected. In practically every experiment where a flow of dielectricity is established, an air flow results in the direction of the flux. In the beginning, the air flow was so pronounced that it was difficult to purify the results so as to eliminate what appeared to be the effects of an "electric wind".
It is to be noted that the classical concept of electric wind is perhaps inseparably confused and inter-related to the effects of a flow of dielectricity. Any electrified point, according to classical concepts, produces ions of the same sign as the point and hence are repelled by the point, producing a motion of the medium when their momentum is transferred to that medium. It is assumed that the reaction, resulting from the repulsion of the ions from the point, will drive the point in the opposite direction and that this reaction will be exactly equal and opposite to the forward momentum of the wind.
Page 132.
A simple experiment will reveal that this is not necessarily true:

Net force on system of two electrodes is as shown. Measured only on the two electrodes.
In the above experiment, only by considering the forces acting on the medium to the side of the alignment of electrodes (which are in a direction from right-to-left) will the net force (as indicated) be eliminated.
It is obvious that the classical concept of the electric wind does not explain a movement of the medium from right to left (in the above explanation).
On the other hand, the classical concept explains the left-to-right momentum but cannot explain the lack of balance which causes the net force as indicated.
In Sec 70. it was shown that a flow of dielectricity probably results from any situation in which there is a no-linear electric flux density.
Page 133.
In the illustration on the previous page, there is a strong non-linear gradient on the electric field between the sharp point and the large arcuate electrode. The greatest density exists around the end of the point and falls of to a minimum at the arcuate electrode.
Hence, according to the principles set forth in Sec. 70, a flow of dielectricity is created by such a configuration as follows:

Flow of dielectricity causes movement of dielectric fluid.
Such a diagram, however, neglects the flow of dielectricity which is conducted through the leads of the power supply, as:

Flow of dielectricity through electric source in same direction as classical electric current.
In general, however, where the wiring of the electrical supply is long and/or involved, a consideration of dielectric flow parallel with the electric flow is unnecessary. Even so, it may be completely and finally eliminated by the following system:
Page 134
Three-element System:

Where high impedance elements are placed in feed lines, flow of dielectricity assumes a shorter closed circuit path through the immediate environment.
Now, excluding the electrical feed lines, the path becomes simply a closed toroidal vortex, as:

If the above vortex is acting within a dielectric fluid (such as oil or air) the fluid assumes a toroidal vortex as the structure (geometry) of the electrodes permits. The resistance of the fluid to the flow of dielectricity results in a movement of the fluid. That part of the flow which impinges upon the electrodes tends to move the electrode system. Hence, the electrodes (in the illustration) tend to move upward while fluid, particularly near the periphery of the electrodes, tends to move downward.
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Page 135
If such a system is placed in a metal (almost infinitely high K) enclosure, the following field distribution takes place:

The conductivity is so great that virtually no flow appears externally.
Due to the partial closing of the air gap by high conducting material, the flux density is greatly increased. This increase in flow of dielectricity will cause an increase in the lift of the electrode system within the enclosure. The downward flow through the walls of the enclosure will, however, be sufficient to virtually balance the lift if the electrode system is mechanically attached to the metal enclosure.
In other words, placing the electrode system within the can greatly increases the lift of the electrode system by itself. But, a force virtually of the same magnitude and opposite in sense is created within the walls of the can, by reason of the resistance to the flow offered by these surfaces or (perhaps more correctly) these volumes of upper high-K materials.
Page 136
No secondary flow patterns are established outside of the can due to the ability of the metal walls to conduct all of the flow of electricity.
The effect is similar to the ability of iron cores (of high magnetic permeability) to convey all the magnetic flux, allowing the establishment of no flux outside. This will, of course, be true up to the point of saturation, where a further increase in flux cannot be carried and leaks out into the surrounding space.
When saturation to the flow of dielectricity has been reached, the flux which leaks out causes secondary flows or "reversed" vortices, as:

3-Element dielectricity generator in thin Saran bag
Page 137
The friction of the moving air both inside and outside the container (upon the walls of the container) then causes the can to move downward, while the air farther away moves up.
In this way, an electrode system encased in an enclosure where the flux density is beyond saturation (as with a Saran sheet enclosure), the force acting upon the system appears to be reversed.
Increasing the thickness of the Saran or by using dielectrics of greater conductivity of dielectricity, this effect of reversal may be reduced or eliminated entirely.
Penetration of a saturated sheet of thin Saran.
Using Saran as an example of material which may be saturated when in thin sections, the following experiment is suggested:

Showing balance or possible null between primary and secondary flow.
Page 138
In the foregoing experiment, the electrode system is suspended for lift measurement within a Saran bag. Complete reversal of force, due to saturation, is observed, and the entire rig possesses a force downward.
If then, the rig is placed in a metal can, a complete reversal to lift may be observed for small diameter metal cans. The force downward will persist in larger diameter metal cans. A size of metal can, between these two extremes, may be found where no force exists. This null will represent the balance between the primary flow which penetrates the Saran bag and the secondary flow created by the saturated bag.
Another experiment which is suggested to test the saturation theory is the use of multiple layers of Saran, each layer contributing to the flux conductivity, whereby the addition of each layer reduces the reversed force a given amount, finally increasing the conductivity to the point below saturation (for that particular voltage) where the force is zero. At that voltage, the flux (being fully conducted) produces no force. At a slightly higher voltage, the flux being greater, is not fully conducted by the now saturated Saran sheets, and hence gives rise to a reversed force due to the secondary or exterior vortex.
Page 139
72. Generation of Dielectricity by the Use of Alternating Current.
Walkertown, NC; APR. 7, 1958.
In Sec 69, the use of high voltage RF for the generation of dielectricity was proposed. The circuitry included a self-regulating oscillator fed by a DC exciter.
It must be borne in mind that the generation of dielectricity is a kind of rectification process, producing unidirectional flow of dielectricity from either electrical polarity. Hence, AC at any frequency will generate dielectricity.
Where the dielectricity generator possesses a natural capacitance, the circuitry may include an inductance for operation as a tank circuit at any desired frequency.
Such a circuit is as follows:

Concentric type dielectricity generator using AC.
The flow connectors must (electrically) connect every other ring as indicated. The flow of dielectricity is outward from the center.
Page 140
73. The Coiled Strip Capacitor as a Generator of Dielectricity.
Walkertown, NC; April 8, 1958.
It is proposed that the spiral or coiled-strip capacitor may make a very convenient and cheaply constructed generator of high potential dielectricity.












Page 141
Using the spiral generator in the propulsion of a space craft, the following may be suggested:

The advantages are that the electrical circuits be limited to the spiral and the inductor. The dielectric circuits would include the A frame and the rubber (as the center of the spiral). Hence, there would be no electrically charged elements under the craft. The voltage used in the RF drive for the spiral capacitor would be relatively low.
No electric potential would exist between the high potential dielectricity terminals, nor in the external circuit. All luminous phenomena would arise from the high potentials of dielectricity present in the force field.
Page 142.
74. High Flux, Closed Circuit Transducer for Dielectricty
Walkertown, NC; April 29, 1958.
In the foregoing sections, the pattern of circulation of dielectricity was indicated in a number of instances. The flow invariably is from a region of high electric gradient to low electric gradient, such as:

(1) Outward from a highly charged point into the environment

(2) Outward from an inner electrode to an outer electrode. May be arcuate and may be concentric.

(3) From the small end toward the large end of a dielectric under electric strain --- may be wedge-shaped or cone or pyramid frustrums.

(4) From the high-gradient end to the low-gradient end where the non-linear electric gradient is established through external circuit resistance such as leakage.
Page 143.

(5) From the low density end (or low K or mu) toward the high density end (or high K or mu) where an electric field exists in a non-homogeneous dielectric.
In (3), the flow of dielectricity is created initially by the wedge-shaped or truncated cone shaped dielectric. Such a member is a "dielectromotance". The return circuit for the dielectric flux is through the medium immediately surrounding the member, as:

Where two members are related in series, the flux density is increased and the air gap (free path through the medium) is shortened, as:

Circulation pattern of dielectric flux between two dielectromotances in series.
In the above circuit, the (total) dielectromotance is doubled and the flux density greatly increased by reducing the air gap.
Page 144.
74. (Continued)
In the transducer, which is the subject o this section, the arrangement is as follows:

These forces may be of a high magnitude when high K material is used in the conical (armature and stator) sections. Rubber or plastic diaphragms may be used to hold the armature in position yet permit limited vertical (axial) movement. The device may be studied at high voltages either in vacuum or under oil.
Such a device is a transducer, between electrical and mechanical energy.
 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-28 09:19:43 | 显示全部楼层
Page 145.
74. (Continued).
When electrical energy is supplied to either or both members, motion results.
If one or the other member is energized, and mechanical motion is supplied, an electric current in the second member will be generated. Such current will vary in accordance with the motion. Hence, the device will operate as a vibration pickup or microphone as well as an oscillating force generator or loudspeaker element.
Also, where all electrical conditions are rigorously constant, the force will vary according to the flux density. If such flux density within a closed system such as this varies with a linear, solar or sidereal diurnal pattern, such pattern will show upon a suitable force recorder operating for time-series observation.
As an actuating mechanism for such a recording device, the apparatus appears to have great promise.
Page 146.
75. Motion of Dielectric Media Produced by Dielectric Flux. Dielectric Wind.
Winston-Salem, NC; May 1, 1958.
In all of the experimental work to date, the results which have led to the concept of dielectricity and dielectric flux have carried one characteristic in common --- i.e, force or motion exerted upon dielectric solids or fluids.
In general, the source of the dielectricity or dielectromotance possesses a force in one direction whereas the balance of the circuit exhibits a force in the opposite direction, as:

If the return circuit is in air, oil or other dielectric fluid, the force results in movement of the fluid. In many cases where the electrodes are charged with respect to the medium, the flow may be mistaken for electric wind. It is usually quite difficult to separate these effects.
Any highly electrified point produces ions which are repelled from the point, giving rise to a motion in the medium known as electric wind.
In the same structure, the non-linear electric gradient outward from the point constitutes a dielectromotance and gives rise to a flow of the medium outward from the point ad in the direction of the decreasing flux density. Hence, the so-called electric wind may in fact be a total of the two effects. See p. 142 (1).
Page 147
Only by creating a dielectric potential difference where there is no electric potential difference, can the pure dielectric wind be separated from the electric wind. This is possible, it would appear, in the following structure:

In these circuits, two dielectromoances are connected in series, and the dielectric potential difference is doubled. The flow is in the closed circuit as indicated.
Page 148.
Another way for detecting the force acting upon dielectric media is the hydrostatic pressure developed by oil within an insulating tube.

(1) Increase in height of oil column due to pressure as indicated.

(2) Same as above but with three turns of tubing, increasing the pressure 3 times.

(3) Using a series of arcuate or conic field-shaping devices

(4) Motion of dielectric rod.
Page 149
If dielectric flux creates a potential difference which is additive with each turn, such as the hydrostatic pressure would be in Fig 2, then the following may produce interesting results:


If the flow if dielectricity is conceived to be from a higher to a lower potential, then the end of the conductor at point A will have the higher potential. The flow will be toward B in the external circuit.

If AC is used, frequency of the dielectricity is double the frequency of the supply electricity.
Page 150
Inductive force effects created by a coil carrying dielectricity.

Figure 1. Causing rotation of adjacent disc.
Figure 2. Causing rotation of core (axis)
High potential dielectromotance with a large number of turns of dielectric conductor. Shown in Fig 7. p. 147.

Page 151
76. A Method of Ship Propulsion using Dielectric Flux.
Walkertown, NC; July 7, 1958.
If the dielectric return circuit passes thru the water surrounding a ship, it would seem entirely possible that the ship would be propelled.

Such a requirement would be satisfied by the following scheme:

Applied to a ship, the design might take the following shape:

Entire water body is the cathode envelope and is driven astern. Ship (dielectric) is driven forward.
 楼主| 发表于 2017-6-28 09:27:44 | 显示全部楼层
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