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【资料分享】 沃登克里弗塔与共振能量(机译)

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发表于 2017-6-28 10:21:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式


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TESLA ON GLOBAL WIRELESS ENERGYTRANSMISSION
FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER PURPOSES

With Additional Comments by Henry Bradfordand Gary Peterson

Atmospheric Conduction Method
Energy Transmission By Means of a SphericalConductor Transmission Line With an Upper Half-space Return Circuit.
全球无线能源传输的特斯拉
对于电信和其他目的
亨利布拉德福德和盖瑞彼得森的评论
大气传导方法
通过一种具有上半空间回路的球形导体传输线路的能量传输。
    Tesla's ideas about electrical conduction through the "naturalmedia" fall into two categories: closed circuit and open circuit. [HenryBradford]
In 1932 journalist John J. O’Neillconducted an interview with Tesla in which he talked about the differencebetween the wireless transmission of electric energy using what Mr. Bradforddescribes as either “closed circuit” or “open circuit” principles.
特斯拉关于通过自然媒体进行导电的想法分为两类:封闭的电路和开放的电路。(亨利·布拉德福德)
1932年,记者约翰j奥尼尔对特斯拉进行了一次采访,他在采访中谈到了使用布拉德福德所描述的封闭电路开放电路原理之间的无线传输之间的差异。
I also asked him if he is still at work onthe project which he inaugurated in the '90's of transmitting power wirelesslyanywhere on earth.  He is at work on it,he said, and it could be put into operation. . . . He at that time announcedtwo principles which could be used in this project.  In one the ionizing of the upper air wouldmake it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal.  In the other the power is transmitted bycreating "standing waves" in the earth by charging the earth with agiant electrical oscillator that would make the earth vibrate electrically inthe same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer.  "I do not use the plan involving theconductivity of the upper strata of the air," he said, "but I use theconductivity of the earth itself, and in this I need no wires to sendelectrical energy to any part of the globe." [“Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor MayTransmit Power 'Round’ Earth,” Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1932.]
我还问他,他是否还在为这个项目工作,这个项目是他在地球上任何地方无线传输90年代发射的。他说,他正在研究这个问题,它可以被投入到。。。当时他宣布了两项原则,可以在这个项目中使用。在一种情况下,上层空气的电离会使它成为一种好的导体,就像金属一样。在另一种情况下,通过在地球上用一个巨大的电振荡器来给地球充电,从而产生驻波,从而使地球以电振动的方式振动,就像用锤子敲击时振动的方式一样。他说:“我并没有使用空气中上层的导电性的计划,但我使用的是地球本身的导电性,在这个过程中,我不需要电线来把电能输送到地球的任何地方。”1932710日,特斯拉宇宙射线发动机可以传送能量地球。
    The closed circuit system consists of a large Tesla coil transmitter, anionized path connecting the transmitter to the upper atmosphere, the upperatmosphere, a second ionized path connecting the upper atmosphere back down toa receiving location, and the receiver itself. The circuit back to the transmitter is completed through the earth.  The upper atmosphere, like any low-pressuregas, is not an ohmic conductor, but will conduct electricity if broken down;i.e., ionized.  The portion of the upperatmosphere between the transmitter and the receiver would then conduct currentlike a neon tube of planetary proportions. It would require a certain amount of energy to maintain the electricaldischarge through it.
The earth is 4,000 miles radius.  Around this conducting earth is anatmosphere.  The earth is a conductor;the atmosphere above is a conductor, only there is a little stratum between theconducting atmosphere and the conducting earth which is insulating. . . . Now,you realize right away that if you set up differences of potential at onepoint, say, you will create in the media corresponding fluctuations ofpotential.  But, since the distance fromthe earth's surface to the conducting atmosphere is minute, as compared withthe distance of the receiver at 4,000 miles, say, you can readily see that theenergy cannot travel along this curve and get there, but will be immediatelytransformed into conduction currents, and these currents will travel likecurrents over a wire with a return.  Theenergy will be recovered in the circuit, not by a beam that passes along thiscurve and is reflected and absorbed, . . . but it will travel by conduction andwill be recovered in this way. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With AlternatingCurrents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, andTransmission of Power, Leland I. Anderson, Editor, Twenty First Century Books,1992, pp. 129-130.]
这个封闭的电路系统由一个大的特斯拉线圈发射器组成,它是一个将发射机连接到上层大气的电离路径,上面的大气层,第二个电离路径,连接上大气层后回到接收位置,以及接收器本身。返回到发射机的电路是通过地球完成的。上层大气,就像任何低压气体一样,不是一个欧姆导体,但是如果被分解,就会导电;电离。发射器和接收器之间的上层大气的部分将会像一个行星比例的氖管那样进行电流。它需要一定的能量来维持它的放电。
地球的半径是4000英里。环绕地球的是一种大气。地球是一种导体,上面的大气是一种导体,在导电的大气层和导电的地球之间只有一层绝缘层。现在,你马上就会意识到如果你在某一点上设置了不同的潜能,你就会在媒体中产生相应的势能波动。但是,由于距离地球表面进行大气是分钟,与接收机的距离为4000英里,,您可以很容易地看到能量不能沿着这条曲线和到达那里,但将立即转换为传导电流,这些电流将电流通过电线与回报。能量将在电路中被恢复,而不是通过沿这条曲线传递的光束,并被反射和吸收。但是它会通过传导来进行,并且会以这种方式被恢复。尼古拉特斯拉在他的工作中,交流电和他们的无线电报、电话和电力传输的应用,Leland I.Anderson,编辑,20世纪初的书籍,1992年,第129-130页。
In operation, the electrical energy flowingthrough the atmospheric conductor is characterized by its high voltage and lowcurrent, and through the terrestrial conductor by its high current and lowvoltage.  For any given power level, theloss in the atmospheric plasma transmission line is proportional to the valueof the resistance (R) of the ionized path between the two stations, andinversely proportional to the amount of current (I) flowing along this path.  The voltage drop (E) across R is given byOhm’s law, E = IR.  There is an inverserelationship between voltage and current, so for any given load, increasing thetransmission line voltage reduces the current. Looking at this relationship a different way, real power in atransmission line is dissipated as heat due to the resistive element R impedingthe flow of electrons.  Decreasing thecurrent or rate of flow of electrons through the conductor results in fewerelectron 'collisions' resulting in less energy dissipation in the form ofheat.  Thus, for any given load with aconstant transmission-line resistance, reducing the current that flows throughthe transmission line also reduces the voltage drop.  This reduction in end-to-end voltage dropequates to greater transmission-line efficiency. [See I2 R, Double Proportionof Resistance to Power.]

In Tesla’s words,
在运行中,通过大气导体的电流以其高电压和低电流为特征,通过其高电流和低电压通过地面导体。对于任何给定的能级,大气等离子体传输线的损失与两个站之间的电离路径的电阻(R)的值成正比,与电流(I)沿着这条路径流动的量成反比。电压降(E)R上是由欧姆定律E=IR给出的。电压和电流之间有反比关系,所以对于任何给定的负载,增加传输线电压会降低电流。以一种不同的方式看待这种关系,由于电阻性元素R阻碍了电子的流动,传输线中的真实能量就会被消耗掉。通过导体降低电子的电流或速度,会导致更少的电子碰撞,从而减少热量的能量损耗。因此,对于任何给定的负载,具有恒定的在线电阻,减少流经传输线的电流也会降低电压降。端到端电压降的减少等同于更大的传输效率。看I2 R,是对能量的两倍的电阻。
在特斯拉的话说,
. . . by such means as have been describedpractically any potential that is desired may be obtained, the currents throughthe air strata may be rendered very small, whereby the loss in the transmissionmay be reduced. [SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897,U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900.]

Tesla’s wireless transmitter-receiverstation was designed to develop extremely high potentials on the elevatedterminal in order to minimize the loss due to the atmospheric plasmatransmission line resistance.  Anothercharacteristic of the Tesla apparatus is that a high current flows in theconductor that connects the oscillator to the earth.  Looking at an entire atmospheric conductionsystem, each of the transmitter-receiver stations serves, in a sense, as alever and a fulcrum that impedance matches the heavy-current power flowingthrough the terrestrial ground path with the high-voltage power flowing throughthe atmospheric path. [Kenneth L. Corum and James F. Corum]
通过这样的方法,几乎可以得到所期望的任何潜在的可能性,通过空气层的电流可以变得非常小,从而减少传播的损失。电能传输系统,189792日,美国专利第645,576201900
特斯拉的无线传输接收站被设计为在高架终端上发展极高的潜力,以减少由于大气等离子体传输线路电阻造成的损失。特斯拉设备的另一个特点是,电流在导体中流动,将振荡器与地球连接起来。在整个大气传导系统中,每一个传输接收站都在某种程度上,作为一个杠杆和一个支点,阻抗与在地面地面上流动的大电流的能量相匹配,而高压能量在大气路径中流动。James F.CorumKenneth L.Corum
    An independent power source is required at the receiving location tosustain the conducting path to the upper atmosphere.  Both the transmitter and the receiver have tobe capable of ionizing the upper atmosphere out to some distance, in much thesame way that a corona discharge ionizes the air out to a radius at which itselectric field falls below the breakdown value for air, or the leader in alightning discharge ionizes the air ahead of the bolt.
在接收位置需要一个独立的电源,以维持通向高层大气的传导路径。发射机和接收机必须能够电离上层大气的一段距离,几乎以相同的方式,电晕放电电离空气半径,其电场低于空气的击穿值,或领袖闪电放电电离空气的螺栓。
Tesla described the ionization process likethis:
For example, a conductor or terminal, towhich impulses such as those here considered are supplied, but which isotherwise insulated in space and is remote from any conducting-bodies, issurrounded by a luminous flame-like brush or discharge often covering manyhundreds or even as much as several thousands of square feet of surface, thisstriking phenomenon clearly attesting the high degree of conductivity which theatmosphere attains under the influence of the immense electrical stresses towhich it is subjected.  This influence ishowever, not confined to that portion of the atmosphere which is discernible bythe eye as luminous and which, as has been the case in some instances actuallyobserved, may fill the space within a spherical or cylindrical envelop of adiameter of sixty feet or more, but reaches out to far remote regions, theinsulating qualities of the air being, as I have ascertained, still sensiblyimpaired at a distance many hundred times that through which the luminousdischarge projects from the terminal and in all probability much farther.[SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No.645,576, Mar. 20, 1900.]
特斯拉描述了这样的电离过程:
例如,导体或终端,冲动如这里提供,但在空间,否则绝缘远离任何conducting-bodies,周围是刷涂或放电发光火焰般的通常覆盖数百甚至数千的平方英尺的表面,这一惊人的现象明显证明大气的高度的电导率达到的巨大的电应力的影响下接受。然而,这种影响是不局限于部分大气由眼睛发光的和明显的,有人像在某些情况下实际上观察到的,可能会填补空间的球形或圆柱形的信封内直径60英尺或更多,但到达的偏远地区,空气的绝缘特性,我已经确定,还是理智受损在远处几百次的发光放电项目从终端和在所有概率更远。电能传输系统,189792日,美国专利第645,576201900
Both wireless stations would beindividually capable of ionizing the upper atmosphere in their vicinities outto distance that is based upon four physical parameters.  Tesla identified these as the “electromotiveforce” of the transmitted impulses, the atmospheric density, the height of theelevated terminal above the ground, “and also, apparently, in slight measure, .. . the degree of moisture contained in the air.”  By using a vertical ionizing beam ofultraviolet radiation the requirement for very tall towers is reduced.

I have also found it practicable totransmit notable amounts of energy through air strata not in direct contactwith the transmitting and receiving terminals, but remote from them, the actionof the impulses, in rendering conducting air of a density at which it normallybehaves as an insulator, extending, as before remarked, to a considerabledistance. . . . [Ibid.]
两个无线电台都能独立地将其周围的上层大气电离成距离,这是基于四个物理参数。特斯拉认为这些是传输脉冲的电动势,大气密度,地面上高架终端的高度,而且,显然,也有轻微的测量。空气中含有的水分。通过使用一种垂直的紫外线辐射光束,对很高的塔的要求降低了。
我还发现值得注意的可行的传输能量的空气通过地层不直接接触传输和接收终端,但是远离他们,行动的冲动,在渲染进行空气的密度通常表现为绝缘体,扩展,如前所述,一个相当大的距离。(出处同上)
The region from the upper troposphere andupward, located between the transmitter and the receiver, would becomeavailable as a conductor by inducing the plasma state within that region. Thisis the “aurora” effect described by Tesla in the 1916 interview.

I have constructed and patented a form ofapparatus which, with a moderate elevation of a few hundred feet, can break theair stratum down. You will then see something like an aurora borealis acrossthe sky, and the energy will go to the distant place." [Nikola Tesla OnHis Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to WirelessTelegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, 1992, p. 110.]
该区域从上对流层向上,位于发射器与接收器之间,通过诱导该区域内的等离子体状态而成为导体。这就是特斯拉在1916年的采访中所描述的极光效应。
我已经建造并申请了一种设备,它的高度可以达到几百英尺,可以把空气层分解。然后你会看到像北极光一样的东西,能量将会到达遥远的地方。尼古拉特斯拉在他的工作中使用交流电,以及他们在无线电报、电话和电力传输方面的应用,1992年,第110页。
Tesla also spoke about instances in whichthe connection between the elevated terminals is, in part, by electrostaticinduction.

In some cases when small amounts of energyare required the high elevation of the terminals, and more particularly of thereceiving – terminal D, may not be necessary, since, especially when thefrequency of the currents is very high, a sufficient amount of energy may becollected at that terminal by electrostatic induction from the upper airstrata, which are rendered conducting by the active terminal of the transmitteror through which the currents from the same are conveyed. [SYSTEM OFTRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar.20, 1900.]
特斯拉还谈到了一些例子,在这种情况下,高架终端之间的连接部分是由静电感应引起的。
在某些情况下,当少量的能量需要的高海拔终端,更尤其是接收终端D,可能不是必要的,因为,特别是当电流的频率非常高,可以收集到足够的能量,由静电感应终端从高空地层,由活动呈现进行终端的发射机或通过电流相同的传达。电能传输系统,189792日,美国专利第645,576201900
This means that a wholly conductive pathbetween the transmitting and the receiving stations is not an absoluterequirement.  A portion the transmitter’senergy can be collected at the receiver by electrostatic induction alone.  This also suggests that a flow of energy mayoccur between the two high-altitude ionized regions by means of electrostaticinduction, that is to say, by so-called displacement current.  Once the initial station-to-upper-atmosphereconnections are established by the means of displacement current and electricalconduction through the vertical ionized paths, each high-altitude ionizedregion grows in size in the direction of its counterparts with the passage oftime,
I have likewise observed that this regionof decidedly-noticeable influence continuously enlarges as time goes on, andthe discharge is allowed to pass not unlike a conflagration which slowlyspreads, this being possibly due to the gradual electrification or ionizationof the air or to the formation of less insulating gaseous compounds. [Ibid.]
这就意味着,在发射和接收站之间的一个完全的传导路径并不是绝对的要求。通过静电感应,接收器的能量可以在接收器上收集。这也表明,在两个高海拔离子区之间,通过静电感应,也就是所谓的位移电流,可以产生能量流。一旦通过垂直的电离路径通过位移电流和电传导的方式建立了初始的高层大气连接,每一个高海拔的电离区域都会随着时间的推移而在相应的方向上增大,
decidedly-noticeable我同样观察到这个地区的影响力不断扩大随着时间的推移,放电是允许通过不像大火慢慢扩散,这是可能是由于逐渐电气化或电离的空气或少绝缘气体化合物的形成。(出处同上)
    To accomplish this would be a stupendous undertaking.  It strikes me that Tesla’s concept oftransmitting electric power wirelessly via electrical conduction through aclosed circuit consisting of the earth and the atmosphere is not promising froma practical viewpoint.  This is becauseof the enormous voltages needed to reach to useful distances from thetransmitter through the atmosphere, and the power requirements for maintainingthe air path in an ionized state.

Wireless power transmission by means of theatmospheric method appears to be feasible. It can be accomplished exactly as Tesla said it could without violatingthe known laws of physics.  Perhaps ithas not been adopted for economic reasons, and because certain basicengineering challenges that Tesla addressed while developing the system havenot been revisited.  Perhaps the point-topoint atmospheric conduction method is simply impractical.
完成这一任务将是一项巨大的工程。我觉得特斯拉的概念是,通过一个由地球和大气层组成的封闭电路,通过电子传导来无线传输电能,这一概念从实践的角度来看是不可能实现的。这是由于需要通过巨大的电压来达到从发射器穿过大气层的距离,以及维持在电离状态下的空气路径所需要的电力要求。
采用大气法进行无线输电似乎是可行的。正如特斯拉所说的,它可以做到完全不违反已知的物理定律。也许是因为经济原因,它还没有被采纳,因为特斯拉在开发这个系统时所提到的一些基本的工程挑战没有被重新考虑。也许点到点大气传导方法是不现实的。
I [have] contemplated the possibility oftransmitting . . . high tension currents [on the order of twenty million volts]over a narrow beam of radiant energy ionizing the air and rendering it, inmeasure, conductive.  After preliminarylaboratory experiments, I made tests on a large scale with the transmitterreferred to [in Colorado Springs] and a beam of ultra-violet rays of greatenergy in an attempt to conduct the current to the high rarefied strata of theair and thus create an auroral such as might be utilized for illumination,especially of oceans at night.  I foundthat there was some virtue in the principal but the results did not justify thehope of important practical applications. [The New Art of ProjectingConcentrated Non-dispersive Energy Through Natural Media.]

Tesla spoke about the commercialestablishment of a wireless system in which the transmitted energy is utilizedin at least three different ways—high-frequency lighting, turning electricmotors, and wireless telecommunications.
我已经考虑过发送..的可能性了。高压电流在一束辐射能量的窄束上,超过了2000万伏特的电流,并使之以导电的方式呈现。初步实验后,我做了大规模的测试与发射机指在科罗拉多斯普林斯和一束紫外线的能量试图进行当前的高阶层稀薄的空气中,从而创建一个极光等可能是用于照明,特别是晚上的海洋。我发现校长有一些优点,但结果并不能证明重要的实际应用是有希望的。通过自然媒介将非分散的能量集中在一种新的艺术上。
特斯拉谈到了一种无线系统的商业模式,在这种系统中,传输的能量至少可以使用三种不同的方式——高频照明、旋转电机和无线通讯。
    Wireless communications is not as demanding as the transmission ofpower.  Tesla seems to have favouredcarrier frequencies in the range of tens of kilohertz or so, which would bereasonable for transmission of information at a useful rate.  He had in mind transmitters and receivers asthose shown in his patent drawings, communicating through the earth via currentfrom the ground terminal of the transmitter and the partially or wholly ionizedpath described above.  This raises thequestion of whether the current from the ground terminal of a Teslatransmitter, which definitely would exist, would have a range comparable to orgreater than that of a radio wave from a radio transmitter of the same powerand frequency, and the induced earth current that would accompany it.
无线通信并不像电力传输那么苛刻。特斯拉似乎更喜欢在数十千赫兹左右的频率范围内使用频率,这对于以有用的速度传输信息是合理的。他想到的是发射器和接收器,就像他的专利图中所显示的那样,通过电流从发射器的地面终端和上面所描述的部分或完全电离的路径通过电流进行通信。这就提出了一个问题:是否当前从地面终端特斯拉的发射机,肯定会存在,会有一个范围相当于或大于无线电波的无线电发射机的功率和频率,和地球感应电流会陪它。
    The principal difference between Tesla’s system, either closed or opencircuit, and open circuit low frequency radio systems is that a radiotransmitter is designed primarily to emit energy in the form of electromagneticradiation from its antenna, whereas the Tesla communications transmitter isdesigned primarily to inject an electrical current into the earth at its groundterminal.  The mode of propagation forboth systems appears to me to be the same; i.e., earth currents and surfacecharge coupled to a vertical electric field in the Earth-ionosphere cavity.
特斯拉的系统的主要区别,关闭或开路,开路低频无线电系统是一个无线电发射器的设计主要以电磁辐射的形式释放能量的天线,而特斯拉通信发射机的设计主要是将电流注入地球地面终端。两个系统的传播方式在我看来是一样的,,地球表面电流和电荷耦合在Earth-ionosphere腔垂直电场。
Mr. Bradford describes the mode ofpropagation for both the Tesla system and LF radio systems as, “earth currentsand surface charge coupled to a vertical electric field in the Earth-ionospherecavity.”  While this is not a descriptionof space wave electromagnetic radiation, it is, however, consistent with thedefinition of the electromagnetic field associated with an electrical currentflowing through a transmission line.  Ofcourse there is also a space wave component associated with the emissions of anLF radio transmitter in the form of electromagnetic radiation launched from itsantenna.  Tesla argued the emissions fromthe great low frequency AM radio transmitters of the early 20th century were,predominantly, in the form of transmission line surface waves.
    The principal difference between the Tesla-produced and radio-produceddisturbances appears to be the difference in the configuration of currents andfields close to the transmitter.
  布拉德福特先生描述了特斯拉的传播模式系统和低频无线电系统,“地球表面电流和电荷耦合在Earth-ionosphere腔垂直电场。虽然这不是空间波电磁辐射的描述,它是什么,但是,符合相关的电磁场的定义一个输电线路电流流过。当然也有空间波组件与排放相关的低频无线电发射机天线发射的电磁辐射的形式。特斯拉认为排放的低频调频广播发射机20世纪早期,主要在输电线路表面波的形式。
  之间的主要区别Tesla-producedradio-produced障碍似乎是电流和字段的配置的差异接近发射机。
The basic idea is that the earth currentsand charge-coupled electromagnetic field associated with Tesla coiltransmissions gradually decouple from the associated charge carriers and becomeordinary radio waves as a function of the distance from the transmitter.  Mr. Bradford states,

    I do not believe that the theory for it has been worked out, but inprinciple it is a straightforward application of electromagnetic theory.
  基本思想是地球造水流和电磁场与特斯拉线圈传输逐渐脱钩相关的电荷载体,成为普通无线电波作为发射机的距离的函数。布拉德福特先生,
  
  我不相信它的理论已经解决,但原则上是电磁理论的一个简单的应用。
An alternative hypothesis is one in whichthe configuration of the electromagnetic field associated with an ordinaryradio antenna changes as it moves out of the near-field zone, as described bypresently accepted antenna and propagation theory, while the configuration ofthe electromagnetic field associated with a Tesla coil transmitter remainsessentially unchanged as it moves out beyond the near-field zone, through thefar-field zone, all the way to a well grounded phase-conjugate or synchronizedTesla coil receiver.
There are two distinctly different forms ofelectromagnetic-wave propagation.  Thefirst is by means of electromagnetic radiation or ordinary radio waves, such asemitted by an ordinary dipole radio antenna. The second is by ordinary electrical conduction, such as takes placewhen a current flows through a transmission-line accompanied by acharge-coupled electromagnetic field.
  另一种假说是一个的配置与一个普通的无线电天线相关的电磁场变化时的近场区域,所述的目前接受天线和传播理论,而电磁场的配置与特斯拉线圈发射器在本质上并没有改变在近场区域移动时,通过远场区域,一直到良好相位共轭或同步的特斯拉线圈接收器。
  有两种截然不同的形式的电磁波传播。第一个是通过电磁辐射或普通无线电波,如一个普通的偶极子天线发出的。第二个是普通电传导,如发生当一个电流通过输电线路伴随着造一个电磁场。
There are two types of transmitter-antennaexcited propagation modes.  The first isby means of an ordinary radio wave launched by a dipole antenna in the form ofelectromagnetic radiation.  The second isby means of a charge-coupled transmission-line wave launched by a high voltage,pulse-driven, top loaded helical resonator in the form of earth currents and acharge-coupled electromagnetic field.  Asmall radio-wave component might also be present, but this is viewed as anenergy loss.  What might be called ahybrid propagation mode is a combination of the radio wave and thecharge-coupled electromagnetic transmission-line wave launched by a grounded orcounterpoise monopole antenna, i.e., the Marconi-type antenna, the emissions ofwhich more or less predominate as electromagnetic radiation plus anelectromagnetic transmission-line wave component.  In addition to space waves, Marconi antennasalso appear to launch the type of transmission-line or surface wave describedby Arnold Sommerfeld and Johann Zenneck. This surface wave is different from the well-known Norton Surface Wavethat is the result of the interaction of the ground wave part of a radioantenna’s radiated space wave with the earth’s surface.  There may be an interaction between theZenneck and Norton surface waves which occurs along the interface between thetwo half-spaces resulting in the creation of an interference pattern extendingoutward around the launching structure.
有两种类型的transmitter-antenna兴奋传播模式。首先是通过一个普通的无线电波发射偶极子天线电磁辐射的形式。造第二个是通过高压输电线路波发射,pulse-driven,顶部加载螺旋谐振器的形式地球电磁场电流和超快。一个小的无线电波组件也可能存在,但这被视为一种能量损失。所谓混合传播模式结合了无线电波和造电磁传输线波发起接地或平衡磁单极子天线,即。Marconi-type天线,这或多或少的排放占主导地位的电磁辐射+一个电磁传输线波组件。除了空间波,马可尼天线似乎也启动类型的输电线路或表面波由阿诺德·索姆费尔德和约翰·Zenneck描述。这表面波不同于著名的诺顿表面波,是地面波之间的相互作用的结果的一部分无线电天线的辐射空间与地球表面波。之间可能存在交互Zenneck和诺顿表面波发生在两者之间的界面半空格导致干涉图样的创建在发射结构向外扩展。
    My guess is that at very large distances from the transmitter, the twodisturbances would be indistinguishable.

If, as predicted, the disturbances producedby the two launching structures are distinctly different then the effects at adistance will be very much distinguishable. In fact, the emissions of a refined Tesla coil transmitter in thefar-field zone should be practically undetectable when using an ungroundedradio receiver with a balanced magnetic loop antenna; quo erat demonstratum.
    So it would boil down to which method of producing the disturbance isthe most efficient and cost effective. One disadvantage of very long distance radio is that VLF transmittingantennas tend to be very large and inefficient, which is one reason why long distanceradio communications mostly switched from long wave to short wave in the1930's.  One thing bothers me.  If the Tesla earth currents propagate to longdistances at low frequencies, why don't the earth currents from the groundterminals of low frequency radio transmitters do likewise, or do they?
  我的猜测是,在发射机非常大的距离,这两种干扰将难以区分。
  
  如果像预测的那样,产生的干扰两个发射结构截然不同的影响在远处将很大程度上区分。事实上,精致的特斯拉线圈发射器的排放远场区域应该几乎检测不到当使用一个无根据的无线电接收机与平衡磁回路天线;现状eratdemonstratum
  所以它会归结为生产扰动的方法哪一种是最高效和成本有效的。很长的距离电台的一个缺点是甚低频发射天线往往非常大,效率低下,这是原因之一远距离无线电通信主要从长波短波在1930年代。一件事困扰我。如果特斯拉地球在低频电流传播到很远的地方,为什么不大地电流从地面终端的低频无线电发射机做同样的,还是他们?
According to Tesla they do.  Some portion of the earth current associatedwith the excitation of a well-grounded LF radio-transmitting antenna propagatesto great distances.
Counsel
Yousay radio engineers put too much energy into the radiating part. What, as amatter of fact, according to your conception, is the part of the energy that isreceived in the receivers in the present system? . . . To illustrate myquestion, take for instance the energy used at Sayville [Long Island, New York]and the reception of that at Nauen [Germany]. I want to know whether it is youridea that the reception there is due to the earth currents that you havedescribed or to the radiated energy.
  根据特斯拉。地球的一部分电流与励磁的基础牢固的低频植入无线传导天线传播很远。
  法律顾问
  你说无线电工程师把太多的精力放在散热部分。事实上,根据你的概念,是接收器接收到的能量的一部分在目前的系统?。为了说明我的问题,例如能源用于Sayville(纽约长岛)和接收,Nauen(德国)。我想知道你的想法,是否接收地球由于电流你描述或辐射能量。
Tesla
It is far more due to the earth currentsthan to the radiated energy.  I believe,indeed, that the radiated energy alone could not possibly produce the effectacross the Atlantic.  It is simplybecause they are incidentally sending a current through the globe—which theythink is their current—that the receiver is affected.  The current produces variations of potentialat the earth's surface in Germany; these fluctuations of potential energize thecircuit, and by resonance they increase the potential there and operate thereceiver.  But I do not mean that it isabsolutely impossible to use my apparatus and operate with electromagneticwaves across the Atlantic or Pacific.  Ionly say that according to calculations, for instance, which I have made of theSayville plant, the radiated energy is very small and cannot be operative.  I have also calculated the distribution ofthe charge on the antenna.  I am toldthat the Sayville antenna is without abrupt changes of capacity.  It is impossible.  There are changes even in a cylindricalantenna; but particularly in that form at Sayville—there are very abruptchanges. [Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and TheirApplication to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, p.142.]
  特斯拉
  这是由于地球电流远远超过辐射能量。我相信,事实上,辐射能量就不可能产生跨越大西洋的影响。只是因为他们是顺便发送一个电流通过全球他们认为是他们的电流,接收方的影响。电流产生变化的潜在在德国的地球表面,这些波动的潜在激励电路,通过共振他们增加接收机的潜力和操作。但我并不意味着用我的设备和操作是绝对不可能与电磁波穿越大西洋和太平洋。我只说,据计算,例如,我的Sayville植物,辐射能量很小,不能手术。我也计算天线上电荷的分布。我听说Sayville天线没有突然变化的能力。这是不可能的。即使在一个圆柱形天线发生变化,但尤其是在形成在Sayville-there非常突然的变化。(尼古拉·特斯拉用交流电应用无线电报,电话,和传播能力,p . 142
    A grounded radio transmitter generates an earth current, andobservations of it might help to answer questions about the range of earthcurrents.  However, distinguishingcurrent from the ground terminal from earth current induced by the radio wave(or part of the wave, depending on how you look at it) might be difficult.  The two types of earth current might bedistinguishable because earth current from the ground terminal of a radiotransmitter should be free from the variations in the strength of the radiowave (e.g., day-night) caused by the ionosphere.  I am not aware of such observations.  On the other hand, VLF to MF radiotransmitters often use some sort of counterpoise instead of a ground connection,and do not produce an earth current directly. The most reliable answers would come from a computer analysis.
建立无线电发射机产生一个地电流,观察它可能有助于回答关于地球电流的范围问题。然而,区分当前从地面终端和无线电波引发的地电流(或波的一部分,这取决于你如何看待它)可能是困难的。这两种类型的地球当前可能的,因为地球当前从地面终端的无线电发射机应该是免费的从无线电波的强度的变化(如昼夜)引起的电离层。我不知道这样的观察。另一方面,甚低频MF无线电发射机通常使用某种平衡,而不是地面联系,而不直接产生一个地球的电流。最可靠的答案将来自计算机分析。
Freely speculating for a moment, perhaps apowerful Tesla coil earth resonance transmitter operated at anon-earth-resonance frequency might result in the creation of radio wavessomewhat as predicted by Mr. Bradford. In the operation of a Tesla coil transmitter, earth resonance resultsfrom the constructive interference of outgoing Tesla waves with the reflectionof preceding Tesla waves returning from the antipode.  If the transmission frequency were to beadjusted away from being purely constructive, then radio waves mightresult.  Going out on a limb evenfurther, rather than a gradual transition from Tesla waves to Hertz waves withan increase in distance from the transmitter, the radio wave emissions might beglobal in nature and ubiquitous.
自由地猜测,也许一个强大的地球磁暴线圈共振发射机在non-earth-resonance频率可能导致创建无线电波有点像布拉德福特先生说。操作的特斯拉线圈发射器,地球共振相长干涉的结果即将离任前特斯拉特斯拉波的反射波返回从对映体。如果发射频率调整远离纯粹是建设性的,那么无线电波可能的结果。进一步将处于危险的境地,而不是从特斯拉波逐渐过渡到赫兹波与发射机的距离的增加,无线电波的排放可能是全球性的,无处不在。
"The chief engineer shook his headslowly, "all radio stations went off the air at seven-fifty-one, andnobody can discover why.  We've calledthe electronic laboratory of the State Science Institute.  They said it looks like radio waves, but of afrequency never produced before, never observed anywhere, never discovered byanybody.  It looks like a wall of radiowaves jamming the air, and we can't get through it, we can't touch it, we can'tbreak it.  What's more, we can't locateits source, not by any of our usual methods. Those waves seem to come from a transmitter that makes any known to uslook like a child's toy!  That's it, Dr.Stadler, it can't be possible, it shouldn't be possible, but there it is."[Atlas Shrugged]
首席工程师慢慢地摇了摇头,“所有电台停播七百五十一岁,没人能发现为什么。我们的电子实验室国家科学研究所。他们说它看起来像无线电波,但从未产生的频率,没有观察到任何地方,永远不会被任何人发现。它看起来像一个无线电波的干扰,我们无法通过,我们不能碰它,我们不能违背。更重要的是,我们不能找到它的源头,而不是我们的常规方法。这些波似乎来自一个发射机,让任何已知的我们看起来像一个孩子的玩具!施博士就是这样,它不可能是可能的,它不应该是可能的,但它是。“(阿特拉斯耸耸肩》)
    Ionospheric effects like the day-night variations indicate that theradio signal received is mainly accounted for by radio waves.  Is it that low frequency radio transmittersgenerally use counterpoises rather than actual earth connections?  Is it that the currents from the groundterminals of the transmitters (as opposed to induced currents in the electricaldisturbance in the Earth-ionosphere cavity; see the next section) do notpropagate to a significant distance? Once again, the answers to these questions, like all the otherquestions, could be found theoretically by straightforward computations made ona realistic model of the transmitter, receiver, and intervening medium.
电离层影响的昼夜变化表明接收的无线电信号主要是由无线电波。是低频无线电发射机通常比实际使用的请求权,而地球连接?是发射机的电流从地面终端(而非感应电流的电气干扰Earth-ionosphere,见下一节)不传播到一个重要的距离?再一次,这些问题的答案,就像所有其他的问题,可以通过简单的计算发现理论上对发射机的一个现实的模型,接收机,干预媒体。
Construction and operation of full-sizeTesla transmitting and receiving apparatus, as described in his patents andelsewhere, will also facilitate this computer analysis.  The creation of a realistic model demands thecollection of empirical data related to the performance of actual functioningTesla coil transmitters, and active and passive Tesla coil receivers.  At the same time these data were beingcollected it can also be shown that radio waves are not involved with thetransfer of electrical energy between the Tesla transmitting and receivingstations.  This can be done using a radioreceiver with a balanced magnetic loop antenna, tunable to the Tesla coiltransmitter's operating frequency.  Theradio receiver's antenna can be configured in such a way so it interacts moreefficiently with radio waves than with the non-radiating emissions of the Teslacoil transmitter.  Grounded monopole andlow-counterpoise radio antennas cannot be used. Even the vertical 1/2-wave dipole antenna, with or without loading coilsand suspended high above the ground to minimize capacitive coupling to theearth would be compromised in its performance.

The Schumann Cavity Resonance Hypothesis
Proposed Energy Transmission By Means of aConcentric Spherical Shell Waveguide
  建设和运营的全尺寸的特斯拉发射和接收装置,所述专利和其他地方,也便于计算机分析。建立一个现实的模型要求实证数据的收集与实际运作的特斯拉线圈发射器的性能,并主动和被动特斯拉线圈接收器。同时这些数据被收集也可以表明,无线电波不参与特斯拉之间的转移电能传输和接收电台。这可以通过使用一个无线电接收机与平衡磁回路天线,特斯拉线圈发射器的操作频率可调。无线电接收机的天线可以配置它更有效的交互方式与无线电波比non-radiating排放的特斯拉线圈发射器。不能使用单极接地和low-counterpoise无线电天线。甚至垂直1/2波长偶极子天线,有或没有负载线圈和悬浮在地面以减少电容耦合,那么地球会在其性能。
  
  舒曼空腔共振的假设
  提出能源传输的同心球壳波导
Tesla spoke about the wireless transmissionof electric energy utilizing some type of terrestrial resonance mode.  Three different forms of terrestrialresonance have been identified.  Theseare the “single-wire transmission line” resonances (for lack of a better term),the transverse cavity resonances, and the Schumann cavity resonances.  As their names suggest, the latter two areresonances that can be excited in the concentric spherical shell waveguideformed from the earth and the ionosphere. Of these three, only transmission systems utilizing the transmissionline resonances and the Schumann resonances are under consideration for powertransmission.  Both mechanisms fall underMr. Bradford’s so-called “open circuit" category.
特斯拉谈到了无线传输的电能利用某种类型的地面共振模式。三种不同形式的地面共振已确定。这些单线传输线共振(因为没有更好的词),横向腔共振,舒曼谐振腔共振。像他们的名字所显示的,后两个是共振,可以兴奋的同心球壳地球和电离层波导形成的。这三个,只有传输系统利用传输线共振和舒曼共振正在考虑电力传输。这两个机制属于布拉德福特先生所谓的开路类别。
    Natural lightning excites the Schumann resonances.  They are observed at the lowest few resonancefrequencies (about 8 Hertz and multiples of that).  Their measured Q's of order 5 - 10 suggestthat the electrical disturbances produced by lightning make a few circuits ofthe Earth before damping out, and create a fairly definite terrestrial standingwave of a few cycles duration.  What iswanted for wireless transmission of power is for the electrical load connectedto the receiver to draw power from the transmitter via the standing wave.  I.e., when the load is switched on, thetransmitter should "feel" the load, as it would in a closed circuit,and respond by providing more power via the standing wave.  According to my estimates, this would requirean Earth-ionosphere cavity Q of order ~10^6 or 10^7 at the lowest Schumannresonance frequencies, whereas it appears the actual value is more like 5 or10.  Cavity Q is defined here as theratio of the electric field energy stored in the Earth-ionosphere cavity per cycleof the oscillation to the average power input to the cavity from thetransmitter.
自然闪电兴奋舒曼共振。他们观察到一些最低共振频率(8赫兹和的倍数)。测量Q的订单5 - 10表明闪电产生的电干扰地球做一些电路之前阻尼,并创建一个相当明确的陆地驻波的几个周期持续时间。什么是通缉的权力是无线传输电力负荷连接到接收器的抽运功率发射机通过驻波。即。负载开启时,变送器应感觉负载,因为它会在一个封闭的回路,通过驻波回应通过提供更多的权力。据我估计,这将需要一个Earth-ionosphere腔问订单~ 10 ^ 610 ^ 7最低的舒曼共振频率,而似乎更像是510的实际价值。腔Q是在这里定义为电场能量的比值Earth-ionosphere腔中存储每个周期振荡的平均功率发射机的输入腔。
    This estimate of the required Q is based on the requirement that thecurrent induced in the input impedance of the receiver should reciprocallyinduce power in the output impedance of the transmitter similar to the powerthat was transmitted initially.  This isa way of expressing the coupling between the transmitter and receiver requiredfor the transmitter to "feel" the load on the receiver.  The Q in my estimate is the value thatproduces an electric field in the cavity strong enough to induce the requiredcurrent in the input impedance of the receiver. At higher frequencies, the required Q is larger, but I expect that the Qof the Earth-ionosphere cavity probably decreases because propagation losses inthe Earth and ionosphere increase.  So myopinion is that Schumann electrical oscillations would not allow efficienttransfer of power from the transmitter to the receiver over long distances.
这个估算所需的Q是基于需求,当前感应接收器的输入阻抗应该相互地诱导在发射机的输出阻抗与最初传播的力量。这是一种表达方式所需的发射机和接收机之间的耦合对发射机接收机上的负载感觉。问我估计是价值,产生电场的腔中强大到足以产生所需的电流输入阻抗的接收器。在更高的频率,需要Q是大,但是我希望的问Earth-ionosphere腔可能减少,因为地球和电离层传播损失增加。所以我的观点是舒曼电振荡不允许有效的权力移交,长距离从发射机到接收机。
Conclusions

    The concept of transferring power with small losses in this manner willnot work because the standing wave would occur in the Earth-ionosphere cavity,which is too lossy (Q too small) to enable a standing wave of sufficientamplitude to be generated. This limitation is independent of the power of thetransmitter.  In order for thetransmitter to feed power to the receiver as efficiently as it would in aclosed low-loss circuit, the power transferred to the receiver should be ableto transfer power of the same order of magnitude reciprocally to thetransmitter.  This is a necessarycondition for the transmitter to “feel” the load connected to the receiver, andto supply power to it via the standing wave. In order to do this, the required Q of the Earth-ionosphere cavity is ofthe order of 10^6 or so at the lowest Earth-ionosphere cavity Schumann resonantfrequency of about 8 Hz, according to my estimates, whereas measurements basedon the spectrum of natural electrical radio noise yield a Q of only about 5 to10.  I believe that the situation onlygets worse at higher frequencies because of increasing energy losses in theearth and ionosphere, as is the case in radio transmission.
  结论
  
  与小损失转移权力的概念以这种方式不会奏效,因为驻波会发生在Earth-ionosphere,太有损(问过小),使驻波生成足够的振幅。这个限制是独立于发射机的力量。为了使发射器供电接收者尽可能有效地将在一个封闭的低损耗电路、电力传输到接收器应该能够传递相同的数量级的力量相互地发射机。这是一个必要条件的发射机感觉负载连接到接收器,并为它通过驻波。为了做到这一点,需要问Earth-ionosphere腔的10 ^ 6的顺序在最低Earth-ionosphere腔舒曼共振频率约为8赫兹,据我估计,而基于自然电无线电噪声的频谱测量收益率只有510的问。我相信更高频率的情况只会变得更糟,因为地球和提高能源损失的电离层无线电传输的情况。
    In my opinion the reason Tesla believed that he could generate very highQ whole-earth oscillations was that he did not know about the existence of theionosphere and its damping effect.  Healso dismissed the practicality of long-range radio because he was unaware ofthe ionosphere and its reflecting properties.

On the other hand, it has been pointed outthat wireless energy transmission using the concentric spherical shell model,as discussed above, is not consistent with the Tesla type transmitter.
The conceptual difficulty with this modelis that, at the very low frequencies that Tesla said that he employed (1-50kHz), earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation, now well understood, would seem tobe impossible with the either the Colorado Springs or the Long Island apparatus(at least with the apparatus that is visible in the photographs of thesefacilities). ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, AnAnalysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L.Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 10.]
  在我看来原因特斯拉相信他能产生非常高的问全地振荡是他不知道电离层及其阻尼效应的存在。他还驳斥了远程无线电的实用性,因为他不知道电离层的反射特性。
  
  另一方面,它已经指出,无线能量传输使用同心球壳模型,正如上面所讨论的,并不符合特斯拉式发射机。
  这个模型的概念上的困难是,在非常低的频率,特斯拉说他使用(1-50千赫)earth-ionosphere波导激励,现在很清楚,似乎是不可能的科罗拉多斯普林斯或长岛装置的装置(至少这些设施的照片中是可见的)["球形输电线路和全球传播,特斯拉的实验确定传播的分析模型,”k . l .乔鲁姆j . f .乔鲁姆博士和j . f . x多姆博士1996p10)
The maximum recommended operatingfrequencies of 25 kHz as specified by Tesla is far above the highest easilyobservable Schumann resonance mode (the 9th overtone) that exists atapproximately 66.4 Hz.  Tesla's selectionof 25 kHz is wholly inconsistent with the operation of a system that is basedupon the direct excitation of a Schumann resonance mode.
Another terrestrial propagation mode is farmore promising.

The Earth Resonance Method
Energy Transmission By Means of a SphericalConductor “Single-wire” Surface Wave Transmission Line
  25千赫的最大推荐的操作频率按照特斯拉远高于最高容易观测到的舒曼共振模式(第九次泛音)存在于大约66.4赫兹。特斯拉25千赫的选择是完全不一致的操作系统,是基于直接激发的舒曼共振模式。
  另一个地面传播模式更有前途。
  
  地球共振法
  能源传输通过球形导体单线表面波传输线
The type of transmitter used to excite thispropagation mode is described and illustrated in Tesla’s patent ART OFTRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, May 16, 1900, U.S.Patent No. 787,412, Apr. 18, 1905 and elsewhere.  It is essentially the same as the transmitterused for the atmospheric conduction method, connected to the ground and to anelevated terminal, with the elevated terminal having the modified sphericalshape seen in a number of photographs and artistic renderings of theWardenclyffe wireless station prototype. A similar rendering of a Wardenclyffe-type structure appears in thespecifications of Tesla’s APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Jan.18, 1902, U.S. Patent 1,119,732, Dec. 1, 1914 in which this terminal is drawnas a modified torus.
发射机用来激发这种传播模式的类型进行描述和演示在特斯拉的专利传输电能通过自然的艺术媒介,516,1900,美国专利第787412,1905418日和其他地方。它本质上是一样的发射机用于大气传导方法,连接到地面和高架终端,提升终端有修改后的球形看到的照片和艺术渲染的无线电台名为瓦登克里夫的原型。相似的Wardenclyffe-type结构呈现出现在的特斯拉的设备规格传输电能,118,1902,1119732年美国专利,1914121,这个终端作为改性环面画。
It is apparent from documents on file atthe U.S. Patent Office pertaining to U.S. Patent No. 787,412 that Teslacollected actual performance data.  Inresponse to a question from U.S. Patent Examiner G.C. Dean regarding threestated requirements that, “seem essential to the establishment of theresonating condition” Tesla’s attorneys responded,
These three requirements, as stated are inagreement with his numerous experimental observations.  . .  .  we would point out that the specificationdoes not deal with theories, but with facts which applicant has experimentallyobserved and demonstrated again and again, and in the commercial exploitationof which he is engaged. ["Spherical Transmission Lines and GlobalPropagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined PropagationModel," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p.3n.]
  很明显从文件文件在美国专利局关于美国专利号787412,特斯拉实际收集性能数据。在回答一个问题来自美国专利审查员G.C.院长关于三所要求的,“似乎必不可少的共振态的建立特斯拉的律师回答说,
  这三个要求,表示同意他的大量的实验观察。我们会指出,规范没有处理理论,但事实,申请人已经一次又一次的实验观察和证明,和他的商业开发。["球形输电线路和全球传播,特斯拉的实验确定传播的分析模型,”k . l .乔鲁姆j . f .乔鲁姆博士和j . f . x多姆博士学位。1996,p . 3 n)
Tesla determined that the time required fora transmitted pulse or wave train to travel from the transmitter to theantipode and back again is .08484 seconds. This equates to a fundamental earth resonance frequency of 11.786892Hz.  He believed that by incorporating aportion of the earth as part of a powerful earth-resonance Tesla coiltransmitter an electrical disturbance could be impressed upon the earth anddetected, “at great distance, or even all over the surface of the globe."
Tesla also made an assumption that Earth isa charged body floating in space.
  特斯拉确定所需的时间发射脉冲或波列旅行从发射机到对映体和回来。08484秒。这相当于一个基本地球共振频率为11.786892赫兹。他相信,通过融合一个地球的一部分作为一个强大的电子干扰earth-resonance特斯拉线圈发射器可以在地上的印象和发现,“在很远的地方,甚至在地球的表面。
  特斯拉还认为地球是一个带电体漂浮在空中。
A point of great importance would be firstto know what is the capacity of the earth? and what charge does it contain ifelectrified?  Though we have no positiveevidence of a charged body existing in space without other oppositelyelectrified bodies being near, there is a fair probability that the earth issuch a body, for by whatever process it was separated from other bodies—andthis is the accepted view of its origin—it must have retained a charge, asoccurs in all processes of mechanical separation. [ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGHFREQUENCY PHENOMENA , Nikola Tesla, Inventions, Researches and Writings ofNikola Tesla, 1894, pp. 294-373.]

Tesla was familiar with demonstrations thatinvolved the charging of Leiden jar capacitors and isolated metal spheres withelectrostatic influence machines.  Bybringing these elements into close proximity with each other, and also bymaking direct contact followed by their separation the charge can bemanipulated.  He surely had this in mindin the creation of his mental image, not being able to know that the model ofEarth’s origin was inaccurate.  Thepresently accepted model of planetary origin is one of accretion andcollision.  
If it be a charged body insulated in spaceits capacity should be extremely small, less than one-thousandth of a farad.[Ibid.]
  一点非常重要的是首先要知道地球的能力是什么?如果带电,它包含什么费用?虽然我们没有积极的证据一个带电体存在的空间没有其他相对带电体附近,有一个公平的概率,地球是这样一个机构,无论过程是分离从其他机构和这是接受的观点的由来,必须保留,发生在所有的机械分离过程。(在光和其他高频现象,尼古拉特斯拉发明、研究和尼古拉·特斯拉的著作,1894,294 - 373页。)
  
  特斯拉是熟悉的示威活动,涉及到莱顿瓶的充电电容和孤立的金属球体的静电影响机器。通过将这些元素相互靠近,也通过直接接触他们的分离电荷可以操纵紧随其后。他肯定这一点在他的精神的创造形象,无法知道地球起源的模型是不准确的。目前接受的行星起源模型是吸积和碰撞之一。
  如果它是一个带电体绝缘在空间能力应该非常小,不到1000法拉。(出处同上)
We now know that Earth is in fact a chargedbody relative to the uppermost atmospheric strata, made so by processes—atleast in part—related to an interaction of Earth’s magnetosphere with thecontinuous stream of negatively charged particles called the solar wind,flowing outward from the center of our solar system.
But the upper strata of the air areconducting, and so, perhaps, is the medium in free space beyond the atmosphere,and these may contain an opposite charge. Then the capacity might be incomparably greater. [Ibid.]

We also know one of the upper strata ofEarth’s atmosphere, the ionosphere, is conducting.
In any case it is of the greatestimportance to get an idea of what quantity of electricity the earth contains.[Ibid.]
  我们现在知道,地球实际上是一个带电体相对于最大气地层,所以由过程至少在相关部分的交互地球的磁气圈的连续流带负电荷的粒子称为太阳风,从太阳系的中心向外流动。
  但是上部地层的空气正在进行,所以,也许是在大气层之外的自由空间中,而这些可能包含一个相反的电荷。然后可能是无比大的能力。(出处同上)
  
  我们也知道地球大气层上部地层之一,电离层,正在进行。
  在任何情况下最重要的是了解地球有多少数量的电力。(出处同上)
Earth possesses a naturally existingnegative charge with respect to the conducting region of the atmospherebeginning at an elevation of about 50 kilometers.  The potential difference between the earthand this region is on the order of 400,000 volts.  Near the earth's surface there is aubiquitous downward directed E-field of about 100 V/m.  In LIGHTNING PROTECTOR, May 6, 1916, U.S.Patent 1,266,175, May 14, 1918 Tesla referred to this charge as the “electricniveau” or electric level.

It is difficult to say whether we shallever acquire this necessary knowledge, but there is hope that we may, and thatis, by means of electrical resonance.  Ifever we can ascertain at what period the earth's charge, when disturbed,oscillates with respect to an oppositely electrified system or known circuit,we shall know a fact possibly of the greatest importance to the welfare of thehuman race.  I propose to seek for theperiod by means of an electrical oscillator, or a source of alternatingelectric currents. . . .  [Ibid.]
  地球拥有一个自然现有的负电荷对大气的导电区域开始海拔约50公里。地球之间的电位差和本地区的400000伏特。在地球表面附近有一个无处不在的下行直接电约100 V / m。在避雷装置,191656,1266175年美国专利,1918514日特斯拉称这一指控是电动水平或电水平。
  
  很难说我们能否获得这些必要的知识,但我们可能有希望,那就是,通过电共振。如果我们可以确定在什么时期地球的电荷,当扰动,对振荡相对电气系统或电路,我们应当知道的事实可能是最重要的人类的福利。我建议寻求通过电子振荡器,或交变电流的来源。(出处同上)
A Tesla coil earth resonance transmittercreates a local disturbance in the earth’s charge that manifests itself as anannular deviation in the density of the background electric field.  This disturbance propagates away from thetransmitter and diminishes in intensity as the distance from the transmitterincreases.  A sufficiently powerfultransmitter produces a field distortion that propagates all the way to theantipode, at which point the energy is reflected back towards its point oforigin.  The transmission of electricalenergy across the entire globe and its reflection all the way back to itssource is the basis of Tesla's earth resonance method.

While the atmospheric conduction methodrequires that both transmitting and receiving apparatus be placed intooperation, a properly tuned and sufficiently powerful earth resonance transmitter,on the other hand, can be made to operate exactly as intended without anyman-made Tesla-type receivers being activated. The earth itself fulfills the requirement that a synchronized receiverbe present.
  地球磁暴线圈共振发射器创建一个本地干扰地球的电荷,表现为一个环形的密度偏差背景电场。这个扰动传播距离发射机和减少强度随着发射机的距离增加。一个足够强大的发射机产生的场畸变传播所有的对映体,此时的能量反射回它的起始点。电能在整个世界的传播和反射回到源头是特斯拉的地球共振的基础方法。
  
  而大气传导方法需要发射和接收装置被放置到操作,正确调整和足够强大的地球共振发射机,另一方面,可以完全按预期运行没有任何人造Tesla-type接收器被激活。地球本身满足要求一个同步接收机。
Conclusion
Long-distance wireless transmission by meansof the Atmospheric Conduction Method is feasible, defying none of the knownlaws of physics, but a power transmission system based upon this method may notbe practicable.  The hypothesizedSchumann Cavity Resonance Method, unto itself, is unworkable.  Wireless transmission by means of the EarthResonance Method may be possible, a feasibility study using a sufficientlypowerful and properly tuned Tesla coil earth-resonance transmitter being calledfor.

   
Latest revision: 04/25/2012
  结论
  远距离无线传输的大气传导的方法是可行的,无视所有已知的物理定律,但输电系统基于此方法可能不是可行的。虚拟舒曼谐振腔谐振法,本身,是行不通的。无线传输通过地球共振法有可能使用一个足够强大的可行性研究,妥善调整了特斯拉线圈earth-resonance发射机被呼吁。
  
  
  最新版本:04/25/2012

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