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冷核聚变之-安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变(意大利)

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发表于 2012-5-3 00:31:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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冷核聚变之-安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变(意大利)

文字资料更新至 12# 楼;视频资料更新至 60#.
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安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变网站(意大利)
http://ecat.com/ecat-products
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       应某些人的要求新上传了(冷核聚变之-安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变(意大利))视频;先上42个片段,后面还有,因该技术最近刚在欧洲(2011年3月起至现在2012年4月)热传!!我会增加外网的新发布视频!
       大家当猎奇贴就可以了,不必跟风,这样某些人不必“翻强”就可以看些新技术视频了!
片段中前面大部份是采访及理论视频(外语的);后面从第24片段开始才有实物视频测试展示!!
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第01楼至12楼为说明及文字资料与图片;从13楼开始为视频资料!
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本视频用6分钟的时间深入浅出地介绍了冷聚变的历史、现状和未来的能源前景。原作者授权发布,特此说明。
本视频中文字幕可参:
http://lenr-canr.org/wordpress/?page_id=1618#ChineseScript
相关背景知识可参:
http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSexperiment.pdf
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:33:23 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:冷核聚变:大突破还是大骗局?]
冷核聚变:大突破还是大骗局?(转帖
/ 奇 云   2012-01-05 00:10:57  分类: 科普原创


1、这一次真的是“冷核聚变”吗?
      冷核聚变(Cold Fusion)是指在接近常温常压和相对简单的设备条件下发生的核聚变反应。核聚变反应中,多个轻原子核被强行聚合形成一个重原子核,并伴随能量释放。它的专业名称是“低能核反应”。

       据美国物理学家组织网2011年11月8日报道:意大利波隆纳大学物理学家安德烈·罗西(Andrea Rossi)宣称,由他制造的一种名叫“E-CAT”的“镍氢冷核聚变装置”,已经成功实现“冷核聚变”,不久即将批量生产并投入实际应用。

    消息传出,在学术界引起的震动不亚于一次真正的核爆炸,因为许多科学家都在梦寐以求地寻找新的核聚变途径。按照目前的核聚变原理,核聚变只能在极端的高压和高温条件下才能产生。如果能实现冷核聚变,便意味着人类将拥有几乎取之不尽、用之不竭的清洁能源。

      据报道,罗西的“E-CAT”装置于2011年10月28日在博洛尼亚大学正式公开测试。出席此次测试活动的人员,主要是罗西的首批匿名客户和媒体记者。到场的还有一些知名人士,其中包括两位观察员,一名是瑞典皇家科技协会的理论物理学副教授、瑞典质疑协会会长汉诺·埃森;另外一名是乌普萨拉大学的斯文·库兰德教授,同时也是瑞典皇家科学院能源委员会会长。这两位的使命主要是对公开测试的科学性进行监督。

      据罗西介绍,E-Cat装置可以根据设计功率的不同,随意进行配置。这次进行公开测试的E-Cat装置,包括一个不锈钢反应容器,置于一个铜管内部,水流经铜管和不锈钢反应器的夹层。设置了水和氢气的进口。通过铜管外缠绕的电阻流经的电流给反应器充电,当达到一定温度的时候,反应器开始工作。

      实验结果产生了大概持续6个小时的稳定于4.69千瓦的能量供应。另外,需要输入能耗大概是330瓦,其中30瓦用于该设备的电子控制部分。能耗比这个装备产能的十五分之一还要小。

      与传统核反应堆不同,“E-CAT”装置不用放射性铀、鈈为燃料,而是利用普通的非放射性镍和氢为原料。将极微小的镍粉颗粒放在一个容积为一升的小容器中,与一些未公开的(知识产权的原因)非放射性催化剂混合,和氢气一起加温加压,温度升到450—500摄氏度左右,即开始发生核聚变反应,同时产生大量的热能。镍和氢价格便宜,储量丰富,储存运输成本低。而“E-CAT”装置用料又非常的节省。100克镍粉至少可供10千瓦级镍氢冷核聚变装置使用半年,10千克镍粉可供兆瓦级镍氢冷核聚变装置使用半年。以煤耗357克/千瓦时计算,燃10千克镍粉即相当燃1500吨煤,二者相差15万倍。另据罗西计算,一克镍粉释放的能量相当于500桶石油。现在一磅镍价值不到20美元。因此,罗西的镍氢冷核聚变装置运行所耗燃料的价值是微不足道的。

      传统核反应堆为了防核辐射外泄,外壳需要几米厚的铁和钢筋混凝土保护,当铀、鈈燃料用完后放射性仍保留达数千年。同时,需放在冷却池中用水冷却一年多才能安全的运送到储存地点保存起来,这对安全和环境具有潜在的危险。罗西的镍氢冷核聚变装置在工作时的放射性主要是低能的γ射线,只需要加2厘米厚的铅保护即可。反应堆关闭数分钟后即无任何放射性,且无任何核废料产生。因此镍氢冷核聚变装置周围的居民无需担心核辐射和核泄漏危险。传统核电站,为了保证安全,核反应堆的核燃料棒的处理储存都是代价高昂的。而储存运输普通的镍则耗费无几。
安德烈.罗西表示,他制造的一个机器已经成功实现“冷聚变”,但是其他科学家怀疑这一过程是否能够变成现实。

      据清洁能源网讯,罗西镍氢冷核聚变装置的产业及商品化正加速推进。在希腊,一个兆瓦级镍氢冷核聚变站建设正在加紧进行,330台反应堆正进行装前测试。美国一公司已签订合同准备在美国制造销售。还有几个公司在洽谈中。据罗西称,3千瓦级镍氢冷核聚变装置只有拳头大小,兆瓦级镍氢冷核聚变装置可安装在一个集装箱内,可随意移动,所以又是一种可移动能源。

       罗西的支持者们对罗西的镍氢冷核聚变装置推崇备至,甚至宣称:20年后,世界上不会有电缆,家家户户都使用自己的冷核聚变进行发电。所有的机动车都靠冷核聚变驱动,到那时,加油站也会集体消失。当然,这一切的前提是:罗西的实验和演示必须是真实可靠的。目前,该事件得到了包括福克斯新闻网、《福布斯》杂志等多家西方主流媒体的强烈关注,但真实结果仍然存疑,许多科学家质疑其说法违背物理学原理。科学家表示,罗西在声称他已经成功实现冷核聚变前,应该能让他实验室以外的其他实验室可以复制这项实验,并对其进行分析。能源顾问乔纳森·库米说:“在独立科学家能够复制这些实验结果前,(E-Cat试验)应该被视为一个骗局。”但是能源新机构纯能源系统的CEO斯特林·艾伦称,他参加了罗西的实验演示工作,E-Cat装置确实能够自我持续下去。《连线》杂志在线版发表的评论认为,如果说公开测试试验是有预先组织的、“神秘”观摩宾客也是作假的话,那显然没有经过什么精密的计算以来取信于其他人;而且罗西显然只准备把设备提供给他的大单客户进行交付前检验,这些人和他们的律师似乎不是什么容易愚弄的目标,因而无论这是一个世纪性的大突破还是一个大骗局,这家伙似乎都做好了长远准备,没打算“放一枪就跑”。

2、核聚变能源利用的前景和困境
      核能有裂变能和聚变能两种。裂变能是重元素(如铀、钍等)的原子核在分裂过程中所释放的能量。目前世界上所有核电站都是利用裂变能进行发电的。其优点是少量原料就可产生巨大的电能、环境污染少和不存在对石化燃料的依赖。缺点是若核燃料无法控制则会导致能量输出急剧升高,造成失控和事故的发生;所产生的核废料有放射性,对环境会造成污染;同样也存在资源有限的制约。全球目前已建成以原子核裂变能量发电的核电站近500座。世界核电发电量已占电力总发电量的17%,不少国家已占30%以上。立陶宛占80%、法国已占78%。

      核聚变是指由质量小的原子,主要是指氘或氚,在一定条件下(如超高温和高压),发生原子核互相聚合作用,生成新的质量更重的原子核,并伴随着巨大的能量释放的一种核反应形式。核聚变不会产生核裂变所出现的长期和高水平的核辐射,不产生核废料,也不产生温室气体,基本不污染环境。地球上蕴藏的核聚变能远比核裂变能丰富得多。据测算,每升海水中含有0.03克氘,所以地球上仅在海水中就有45万亿吨氘。1升海水中所含的氘,经过核聚变可提供相当于300升汽油燃烧后释放出的能量。按目前世界能量的消耗率估计,地球上蕴藏的核聚变能可用100亿年以上。

      要把核聚变时放出的巨大能量作为人类的能源,必须对剧烈的聚变核反应加以控制,因而称为受控核聚变。实现受控核聚变的的首要条件是需要极高的温度。两个氘核的聚变反应,温度必须高达一亿摄氏度;对于氘核与氚核间的聚变反应,温度必须在五千万摄氏度以上。

      目前的受控核聚变研究,主要是沿着热核聚变的途径进行。将聚变所用的氘加热至上亿度,使整个氘燃料成为总体呈电中性,由带正电的氘离子和带负电的电子所组成的一团混合物,这样的混合物被称为物质第四态的高温等离子体。这样的反应方法使人很容易想到生炉子的道理:要想让炉里的煤燃烧,首先必须点燃足量的煤,使它们发出的热除了弥补散失的热量外尚有富裕,这样煤才能越烧越旺。

      还有一个引发受控反应的必要条件,就是要对参与反应的燃料等离子体气团施以足够的压力和混合聚集,也就是对它们加以必要而充分的约束。因为在1亿度的高温下,等离子体中的粒子速度可高达每秒1千公里以上。如果不加约束,这些等离子体会在瞬间逃之夭夭。为了保证反应的持续进行,这种高温高密的等离子体气团还必须能维持足够长的时间,这就需要找到一个“容器”,并且利用约束手段将高温高密的等离子体约束起来,不让它损坏容器。

      50多年来对核聚变的研究,不外乎沿着磁约束和惯性约束两大途径进行。磁约束是利用强磁场可以很好地约束带电粒子这个特性,构造一个特殊的磁容器,建成聚变反应堆,在其中将聚变材料加热至数亿摄氏度高温,实现聚变反应。惯性约束与磁约束不同,实际上对等离子体不加约束。而是利用粒子的惯性,在它们来不及跑散之前就发生聚变反应,以取得足够的能量。众所周知的氢弹爆炸就是采用了惯性约束,不过氢弹是靠原子弹引爆的,而人类目前还无法加以控制,于是就改用其它高功率物质(如激光、电子束、离子束)来轰击一颗颗微小的氘氚燃料丸,将它极其快速地压缩和加热,这实际上是一颗颗微型氢弹爆发。

      受控聚变反应和受控裂变反应的实际研究都是从20世纪50年代初开始的,时至今日,核裂变反应堆或发电站早已比比皆是,而受控热核聚变的和平利用却遥遥无期。专家称,实现受控聚变是一个比登月还要困难得多的科学工程。乐观的估计认为,受控热核聚变能有望在50年后实现商业化。

3、冷核聚变实验曾经引发科学丑闻
      既然受控核聚变是解决全人类能源和环保难题的唯一途径,受控热核聚变工程研究的前景又如此渺茫,因此有科学家坚持探索实现冷核聚变的可能性。

      大约在1984年,有两位电化学家开始关注起在低温下产生聚变的课题。一位是马丁·弗莱西曼,英国皇家学会的成员和南安普敦大学的电化学研究教授;另一位是斯坦利·庞斯,美国犹他大学的化学教授。他们设想,如果强行把两个氘(氢元素的一个变种)原子核挤进一个容不下两个原子核的小空间,这两个氘原子核就有可能发生聚合。金属钯的分子结构便提供了适合这种要求的小空间。

      为了把氘核挤入钯金属的晶格中,他们制作了一个电解槽,电解槽里的重水中有所需要的氘原子,而电解槽的阴极是用钯制成的。他们的假说是:电流从阳极向阴极的运动会迫使氘原子核从重水移入钯的晶格,从而在那里发生聚变。因为这种聚变将会是在接近室温的条件下发生,比起在极高温度下发生的聚变,它是“冷的”。

      1989年3月23日,弗莱西曼和庞斯突然举行新闻发布会,宣称在实验室的小型装置上,用钯作阴极电解重水,实现了常温常压下的“冷核聚变”。消息传出,整个科学界似乎都乱了套。美国犹他州的众议员欧文更是把冷核聚变说成“人类自发明火以来最伟大的发明”,犹他大学校长彼得森特意赶到华盛顿,为成立一个冷核聚变研究中心申请2500万美元经费,世界各地至少有1000个实验室先后行动起来。但是,始终没有人成功地重复出弗莱西曼和庞斯的实验结果,他们俩的故事也就成了科学界几乎人人皆知的反面教材。甚至被指为“病态科学”、“伪科学”,并与N射线、伪气功等现象相提并论。美国的高级科普杂志《科学美国人》(Scientific American)甚至提出要给弗莱西曼和庞斯颁发“搞笑诺贝尔奖”。1989年11月,美国能源部组织成立的一个由22人组成的专家小组,在经过6个月的调查后,对冷核聚变给出了否定性的结论,其中最重要的两条调查结论,其原文内容是1)迄今为止所进行的有过热放出的实验结果不能提供令人信服的证据来说明,这种被称之为冷核聚变的现象可以作为能量的一种有用的来源.(2)被称之为冷核聚变的这一新的核反应过程的发现,其给出的证据是不令人信服的。美国能源部的这一报告,其影响当然超出了美国国内,对全世界这一领域的研究都带来了巨大的否定性影响。时至今日,国际权威学术刊物仍拒绝发表支持冷核聚变的实验结果。对于冷核聚变的许多进展很多人不以为然,抱着全然否定的态度。

       2009年美国国防情报局(报告)预测冷核聚变这项新技术将引起世界更大范围内的关注和认可,也需要更多的调查。这个报告称:“可以彻底改变能源的颠覆性技术生产和储存,因为冷核反应比任何已知的化学燃料释放的能量要高出数百万倍。”
热核聚变示意图

4、冷核聚变研究在争议声中艰难前行
     另一件影响较大的冷核聚变实验发生在2002年。当年的3月8日,享誉盛名的美国《科学》杂志发表的一篇研究论文。来自美国橡树岭国家实验室、特洛伊伦塞勒理工学院和俄罗斯科学院的科学家声称,在相当于三个咖啡杯大小的烧杯里面,观测到了核聚变反应发生的迹象。这篇论文招致了同行激烈的批评,而批评意见首先来自橡树岭国家实验室内部。在同意塔利亚克汉及其合作者向《科学》提交论文后,橡树岭要求该实验室的索尔特马什等人采用另外一种探测器进行检验。不幸的是,索尔特马什说,他们在实验中没有探测到核聚变反应发生的迹象,塔利亚克汉等人的结果纯属假象。塔利亚克汉则辩称,他这两位同事错误地理解了那些实验数据。橡树岭以外的科学家们迅速加入到这场论战,处处可见尖锐的评论。一些科学家将矛头直指《科学》杂志,指责《科学》不应当发表一篇极富争议的论文。

      不过,这一次与1989年的“冷核聚变”事件的性质完全不同。弗莱西曼和庞斯是在论文没有发表之前就匆匆发布新闻的,而塔利亚克汉等人的论文是通过同行评审程序后公开发表的。《科学》杂志也希望“论文”的发表能够促进公开透明的讨论,这是非常正常的科学争论。

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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:34:46 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:父亲讲的“冷核聚变”(镍氢)]
    虽然主流科学界对冷核聚变持否定态度,但是也有许多科学家并未就此罢休,22年来,不断有人坚持探索“冷核聚变”的可能性。1989年后的十年里,美国海军实验室进行了超过200次实验,研究核反应产生的能量是否多于消耗的能量。无数研究人员自那时起都成了冷核聚变的信徒。美国麻省理工学院的彼得·哈格斯坦教授一直在进行“冷核聚变”研究;波特兰州立大学的约翰·达西教授不仅自己相信“冷核聚变”存在,还培养了一群弟子,继续这项研究;意大利的奥古斯都-蒙梯大学在重复“冷核聚变”实验中还取得了不小进展;德国、日本、以色列等国的科学家也在继续这项实验,他们甚至联合起来,成立了一个“国际冷核聚变科学协会(ICCF)”,每隔一年半组织一次学术研讨会。还有很多科学家关注冷核聚变研究工作,只不过多数处于“地下工作方式”。如曾在洛斯·阿拉莫斯国家实验室工作的科学家斯托姆斯,在靠近其住家附近建立一个冷核聚变实验室。在加州SRI研究中心(非盈利私人研究所)工作的麦库伯里,是最杰出的冷核聚变实验学家。已进行了20年的冷核聚变探索的麦库伯里声称,他已进行了5万小时的实验,并已50次“准确无误地”记录到装置产生多余的热量。麦库伯里说:“冷核聚变实验不能按要求进行重复实验的主要原因,是材料的问题。必须开发出一种拥有正确杂质混合物的钯,或开发出另外一种金属。”麦库伯里批评一些主流科学家不承认冷核聚变的事实。他引用量子力学之父普朗克的话说:“科学的每一次进步,都会推出一个葬礼。”麦库伯里说:“冷核聚变不是伪科学。以反伪科学为名扼杀冷核聚变,会把科学探索中的新生事物反掉。”也有科学家认为,科学上的真伪是相对的,今天反对的伪科学明天可能会变成真科学,而今天的科学明天说不定成为伪科学。的确,科学重在探索未知,科学也正是在探索过程中不断发展进步的。我们承认人类认识的相对性,人类只能不断地接近绝对真理,而不可能穷尽它。但相对之中有绝对。在一定的时间和空间范围内,科学就是科学,谬误就是谬误,科学是可以否定谬误、否定非科学的。我们对科学探索中的艰难曲折甚至失败总是予以理解和宽容,因为任何科研成果都不是轻易可以获得的。其中的失误,不少是科学探索中必须付出的代价。这是人类认识的深化和扩展。某些片面、过时的观点需要更新,某些失误需要纠正,这是继承与发展的过程。

      毋庸置疑,冷核聚变的每一次实验的新突破,都将给人们带来惊奇甚至惊喜,但科学实验始终是一项严谨务实的工作,唯有经得起时间检验,并能够推广应用的研究发现才称得上是伟大的科学成果。因此,在答案揭晓之前,科学家们还不得不小心谨慎地对待每一项具体研究,反复验证实验的准确性、可行性,最大化地减少误差,去攻破一个又一个待解之谜。

E-Cat的新模型包括一个不锈钢反应容器,置于一个铜管内部,水流经铜管和不锈钢反应器的夹层。设置了水和氢气的进口。通过铜管外缠绕的电阻流经的电流给反应器充电,当达到一定温度的时候,反应器开始工作。装置非常简单,让人联想到多年前机器的旧管子。
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塞尔吉奥Focardi:父亲讲的“冷核聚变”(镍氢)
Sergio Focardi: parla il padre della "fusione fredda (Ni-H)"
Sergio Focardi_ parla il padre della fusione fredda (Ni-H).mp4
NICKEL_HYDROGEN_COLD_FUSION_ROSSI_PIANTELLI.flv


radiorcdc 在 2011-04-08上传    类别:新闻和政治
Il professor Sergio Focardi racconta ai nostri microfoni la storia della fusione fredda: dai fallimentari esperimenti di Fleischmann e Pons alle sue intuizioni utilizzando Nickel e Idrogeno. La diffidenza della scienza "ufficiale" e infine, tre anni fa, l'incontro con l'ing. Rossi e la creazione del prototipo: l' "energy catalyzer" che secondo Focardi produce fino a 200 volte l'energia immessa e che sta per essere prodotto in serie.
(foto di copertina tratta dal servizio realizzato nel 1997 da Andrea Plazzi per il supplemento Sette del Corriere della Sera in cui si anticipavano i risultati presentati in questi giorni). La sincronizzazione dei sottotitoli è a cura di italiansubs.net, la sbobinatura dell'intervista audio è a cura della community del blog 22passi
塞尔吉奥Focardi教授说冷聚变的麦克风历史:从失败的弗莱希曼和庞斯的实验,以他的直觉,使用镍氢。科学的不信任“官”,最后,三年前,与工程师开会。罗西和创作的原型:“能源”催化剂“,,根据Focardi生产高达200倍的能量输入,将是大规模生产的。
(封面照片采取从作出由安德烈Plazzi在1997年为补充的晚邮报七的报告预计,结果在这几天提出)。字幕同步是由italiansubs.net编辑,转录的采访音频编辑社区博客22passi
video collegato. Stremmenos: "la fusione fredda risolverà molti problemi dell'umanità"
连接视频。 stremmenos“冷融合将解决人类的许多问题”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNcPsGDnUpQ
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罗西和Focardi冷聚变
Cold Fusion by Rossi and Focardi.flv

ghombrero 在 2011-01-27上传    类别:科学和技术
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:36:14 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:某些网友的回复]
下面转贴去年某些网友的回复:

    最新的一个冷核聚变(LENR)装置,一个叫Andrea Rossi的意大利人弄出来的。使用氢气和鎳在一种他保密的催化剂的作用下发生冷聚变产生能量,装置外观较简单,经济性极强(核聚变么),几乎没有辐射,高放剧毒的副产物就更没有了。我这一周把网上所有能找到的相关英文报道都仔细看了,个人感觉这次挺靠谱的。如果是真的话其意义应该远超前几次技术革命了,个人认为这个能在20年内让世界格局发生巨大变化。但是也有很多人说他是骗子,因为他自称为了保密暂不公开技术细节。我看了一些文章说美国海军NRL从他那里买了一套装置回去,不知是真是假,但NRL这些年的确一直在研究LENR,还有论文在国际会议上发表。而且AP的一个科技记者开始去E-CAT的一个1MW级别的装置实验现场采访过,但是回来后就守口如瓶,别人问也不多说,就说“Stay tuned”弄的挺神秘的……最新的消息是NI和他签了个合同,为其提供控制系统(相当于核电站DCS了吧)。
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    我也感觉有可能是骗子,不过这次弄得动静挺大的,而且美国一些传闻和Andrea Rossi打交道的科研机构,比如NRL,都含糊其辞,美联社明明派出了记者但是也不承认(但是该记者在实验现场被别人拍了照片),所以我感觉还是有些靠谱的。另外NRL的确观测到过氢和镍在微尺度上发生聚变的现象,还有论文发表。而且如果没人给他投资,他也没法弄出来个兆瓦级别的装置。这一切的一切让人感觉这次挺有意思的。
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    根据我对冷核聚变的跟踪,目前看来Andrea Rossi的那个E-cat是真的。而且技术含量不高,完全可被复制,所以明后年可能这种便宜高效的能源技术将铺天盖地而来,对每个生活角落产生变化。
有兴趣者可在google上搜索e-cat andrea rossi。阿莫也可考虑投资,真的技术含量不高,投资也很低。

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    话说来很长。但是结果很简单:意大利以前有一个人发现镍和氢在高压(也不是特别高, 大约50Bar)和高温(也不是特别高,大约1000~5000摄氏度)的条件下会释放大量的热能,但是这种实验结果很随机,在论文发表后没有被重视。
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    一个人叫安德烈.罗西,他在这个的基础上继续实验,终于发现才用某种催化剂可以稳定这种反应,2010年他的实验结果是在20bar和450度的条件下,镍和氢能反应而转化为铜,从而产生大约1:25(输入:输出)的热能,而且该装置非常简单且小型化(和一个床头柜差不多大)。目前这哥们不愿意公开催化剂技术,但是很多人根据他以前的演示和发表的一些讲话进行摸索,也作出了类似的实验结果,尽管效果不如罗西的好。这些结果意味着低温原子反应是可能的。
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    如果这件事情真的变为现实,那意味着目前的能源结构统统被推翻。也就是石油未来唯一的作用是生产化纤制品,而目前的裂变核电站和高温热聚变实验将会成为过去式。未来的汽车动力和家庭采暖都会采用这种小盒子式能源箱。
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    开始NASA对此反驳,说冷核发应不可能实现。但是目前保持沉默状态。
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    这种催化剂据说很便宜。 大约成本是镍的10分之一。但是究竟是什么目前Rossi不愿意公开。
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    Rossi在2010年曾经和一个希腊公司Defkalion合作生产,但是一年之后两者掰了,然后Defkalion公告说将推出自己的产品。据Defkalion的老板私下告诉记者说,他们已经通过反向工程掌握了Rossi的催化剂公式,并且找到了其他与Rossi不同的催化剂可能。

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    目前Rossi申请的专利只是对反应器的功能和应用方面的专利,而没有公开任何催化剂技术,所以Defkalion声称自己的产品拥有合法的技术。
http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Andrea_A._Rossi_Cold_Fusion_Generator:Rossi%27s_Hints#CATALYST_CHARACTERISTICS
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    粗略看了一下,理论上的漏洞挺多,如果仅仅是民科式的实验弄出来的,而不是有新理论支撑下设计的实验,这是一场闹剧的可能性很高。
1.核聚变需要打破库伦势垒,也就是克服两个带正电荷的原子核之间的静电斥力,使之靠近到强相互作用力起主导作用的距离。这需要原子核以极高速度碰撞才能克服,宏观上讲就是极高的温度和压强。在Rossi实验的温度和压强之下,库伦势垒不太可能是催化剂能搞定的事情,除非他搞出了“超级量子隧道”之类的效应。就算有“超级量子隧道效应”,我也更相信是由高能射线引发而不是“催化剂”。
2.按照目前的物理学理论,铁元素是一条分界线,周期表排在铁前面的元素聚变会释放能量,而后面的元素聚变则要吸收能量。即使镍氢真的能聚变成铜也只会吸收能量,不会放出能量。
3.核反应副产物。所有核反应几乎都同时产生大量高能射线,至少需要半米厚的铅板才能有效防护,看实验图片,只能说是艺高人胆大。
其实还有很多小问题,不过大理论都过不去,小的不说也罢。
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    我觉得没什么好关注的,省省吧,Rossi不是科学家,只是个商人,他正忙着到处为这个技术申请专利,但却拿不出靠谱的理论支持,所以国际性专利申请已经被驳回。

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    从目前公开的资料看,99%可能性这是外国民科搞的伪科学玩意而已。
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    除非量子力学理论有什么突破性发现可以打破库伦势垒限制,否则低温核聚变不可能在我们这个时空出现。镍的库伦势垒强到太阳中心的温度和压力都没办法和氢发生聚变,别说低温核聚变了。
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    镍经核反应变成铜是由镍原子核捕获中子变成不稳定的同位素63Ni,再经beta-衰变成为63Cu,而不是直接由镍加一个质子(即氢原子核)聚变出来的。
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    为了自己的身心健康和情绪稳定,在即将到来的2012年,务必要做到以下几点:
一.不要跟只会“百度一下”的人争执;
二.不要跟整天只用IE、QQ、360的人争执;
三.不要跟不知道“翻_强”为何事的人争执;
四.不要跟连IMDB TOP10的电影一部也没看过的人争执;
五.不要跟主流争执;
六.不要跟所有帐号都是只用QQ邮箱注_册的的人争执;
七.不要跟5毛争执;
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:37:50 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变 器件特性]
安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变 器件特性

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DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS



  • The volume of the 15 kW reactor cell (officially rated at 10 kW) is about 1 liter. The smaller 4 kW reactor cell (officially rated at 2.5 kW) volume is ~50 ml.
During the Feb. 10 test, the 15 kW reactor (officially rated at 10 kW) was operated for about 18 hours ~ 250 kWh (Levi). (22passi.blogspot.com) Smaller devices are safer to operate. Potentially, due to the fact that the reaction does not "spike" at start up and shut down.



  • The 1 MW (thermal) device will be made of many smaller ones ganged together. It was originally planned to be made up of 50 modules of 20 kW each (Rossi, 3/26/2010), then later ~130 10 kW units, where 30 were held in standby to replace or augment older ones as the power decreased. Also, by having extra modules some of them can be pulled and re-fueled without disruption to power production. As of April 2011 they now plan to use ~300 units of 4 kW each (the smaller one).
  • Power density for a module as a whole, including the container, is 1 W/cm3. (Rossi, 3/28/2010)
  • The power density of the one liter reactor (not including the volume of other components) can be much higher.
  • These cells ("modules" - Rossi) are designed to be connected in series and in parallel. (SL)
  • Maintenance and operation is similar to that of a conventional boiler. (SL "normal boiler" comment)
  • A 20 kW module has a volume of 20 L and weighs 30 kg. (Rossi, 3/26/2010)
  • The minimum power of the e-Cat reactor unit is presently 2.5 kW, with the present design and engineering. Smaller units may be engineered in the future.
  • These cells are made of stainless steel. The stainless steel used does not include any copper. Rossi has posted in his blog the exact type of steel used. In the mini-Rossi unit, the stainless steel cells are inside a larger copper pipe. Cooling water flows around the walls of the cell.
  • The device does not produce gamma rays that escape the shielding, except for a slight increase over background (Rossi, SL) The device produced a large burst of gamma rays when it started up. (Celani) CONTRADICTION
  • The device produces 100 keV and 300 keV particles. (Rossi? – Iverson reports)
  • There is no ionizing radiation detected outside the reactor. (6/13/2010)
The device produces no radioactive nuclear ash. At least, no radioactive nuclear ash is found the day after the machine is operated (Rossi, NyTeknik, 3/18/2011). There may be intermediate radioactive products during operation. “We are not able to know which instable atoms are produced DURING the operation of the reactor, but we can analyze the composition of the powders left AFTER the operations: in such powders we do not find instable elements.” (SL)



  • The device requires 1-cm thick lead shielding, presumably for safety. It was designed by Focardi. The shielding has often been reported as being 2-cm thick. (6/13/2010).
  • The control box contains 5 simple PLCs controlling the resistance heaters, and weighs ~7 kg. (Levi)
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DEVICE OPERATING PROCEDURES



  • Minimal operating temperature is 400°C. (SL)
  • The optimal operating temperature is 600°C. (Source unknown)
  • H gas pressure in the cell is 25 bar (~360 psi) (Essen and Kullander)
  • The effect is triggered with resistance heaters. There are five in the 15 kW device.
  • The reaction is modulated with the resistance heaters. The pressure of hydrogen is also an important factor.
  • The resistance heaters are used at high power to trigger the reaction, then power is reduced to maintain the reaction. In the Feb. 10 test, 1000 W triggered the reaction, and 80 W maintained it.
  • The power can be regulated continuously, from "0 through 100%" by adjusting the preheating input. (Rossi, 4/16/2011)
  • Hydrogen pressure may also play a role regulating power. See Unanswered Questions (below).



  • The reaction can be made self-sustaining with the resistance heaters turned off. This was done in a preliminary test with U. Bologna professors. (SL) *However, this mode is not recommended because it is unsafe and it is difficult to quench the reaction. There is a "risk of explosions" (SL). The device is inherently safe; "if you violate [safety rules] the reactor [quenches]." (SL) CONTRADICTION
  • To ensure safety, Rossi prefers the control electronics be externally powered rather than powered by the device itself with a thermoelectric or a steam turbine generator.
  • The input output ratio has been as high as 200 in recent tests; 80 W in 16 kW out, sustained, and it went over 1600 during the 130 kW burst. The ratio is "always over 6" (SL). (Footnote. I do not think the input/output ratio is meaningful for this device – Rothwell)
  • The device will need maintenance and new catalyst every six months.
  • Picograms of Ni and H are consumed (SL)
  • There are 100 g of nickel in the larger cell. There are "several milligrams" of Ni in the larger cell but "not all of the nickel in the reactor reacts." (SL) [Could this mean nuclear active material?]
  • The actual consumption to make 10 kW is about 0.1 g of nickel and 0.01 g of hydrogen per hour. This is the "mass of Ni that you need in the reactor" but not all of this actually reacts. "The efficiency is very low, due to the probabilistic issue." (SL).
  • The Ni lattice can be disrupted to a certain extent. (SL: "Does the integrity of the Ni lattice have to be maintained ? do damage, disruption, and melting impede the results? No, it is not necessary within certain limits.")



  • The effect can be quenched with the following methods:
  • Where hydrogen is injected with electrolysis, stop electrolysis to cut off the supply of hydrogen. (Focardi)
De-gas the cell.



  • Increase the flow rate to cool the nickel powder and catalyst. (This may have to be done quickly, to induce a thermal shock – Rothwell)
  • A small percentage (2% to 3%) of deuterium will quench the reaction.
  • Piantelli reported that he used N to stop a runaway reaction with his bulk Ni-H device. Rossi says he has not tried this.
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CATALYST CHARACTERISTICS



  • The catalyst is composed of two elements.
  • The elements are not copper, iron or a precious metal. It is not a gas inserted along with the H. (No copper, 7/2/2010)
  • The catalyst is not radioactive.
  • The catalyst is not expensive.
  • The catalyst is not Raney Nickel
  • The additional element is not in gas phase.
  • The Ni processing system increases the cost of Ni by ~10%.
  • Much of the Ni transmutes to Cu during the reaction.
  • The Cu has slightly unnatural isotopic ratios. (Rossi) The Cu ratios are natural. (Essen) CONTRADICTION
  • Fe appears in the Ni catalyst whether from transmutation or contamination is not clear.
  • The Ni isotopes in the starting material are enriched, by some revolutionary technique that costs little. (Rossi, 4/8/2011) "We use regular Ni, so the isotopic composition is the normal one." (Rossi, SL) "We use Ni in its isotopic composition natural." (Rossi, 6/20/2010) The Ni isotopes are normal, not enriched. (Essen) CONTRADICTION
  • Heat production changes the Ni isotopes, according to a study with SIMS at U. Padua (7/2/2010)
"We think that all the Ni participates to the reactions, even if some isotopes should be more efficient." (7/14/2010) "[O]nly Ni 62 and 64 react." (3/25/2011) CONTRADICTION



  • (Footnote. The Ni is called a "catalyst" but that may be a misnomer, since in other cold fusion system it is not used up. Rothwell)
  • Andrea Rossi has stated one of the most important bits of knowledge they have is how to produce atomic hydrogen from diatomic hydrogen and use it appropriately.
  • Tungsten as a Possible Catalyst - Atomic Hydrogen is known to be produced by heated tungsten and similar alloys. This is used in H+ and H- production for the Atomic Hydrogen Blow torch, previously used in the 19th century. It was noted by Rossi in an interview that the catalyst functions to break the hydrogen from it's natural state of H2 to H+ and H- after which the nickel absorbs the proton in the LENR process releasing the excess heat and radiation. Atomic Blowtorches have long been known to have anomalous heating effects as the torch flame will not burn to the touch but can vaporize materials well past 3200c.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_hydrogen_welding
  • http://www.lateralscience.co.uk/AtomicH/atomicH.html
  • This may possibly be related to the previously noted Hot Balls article - http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Hot_Balls_Chemical_Nuclear_Reaction
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UNANSWERED QUESTIONS



  • Rossi will not address the following issues:
  • The identity of the two elements added to the nickel.
  • Loading, or "ratio of hydrogen atoms to metal atoms" to reach the preferred operating level (SL)
  • The reasons self-sustaining operation is difficult and dangerous "are very difficult to explain without violating my confidentiality restraints."
  • "We give [no] information about what is in the reactor beside Ni, H" (SL) (Not true!)
  • Q: Do you control the rate of energy production by adjusting hydrogen pressure? A: Actually, it is more complex. You are asking confidential issues. Sorry. (Rossi, 2/16/2010)
  • Q: Is the reaction primarily surface or bulk? A: That is an "industrial secret." (8/30/2010)

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MISCELLANEOUS



  • Assembling the cell and working with the nickel catalysts is dangerous and requires expertise.
  • Rossi does not have a precise theory but he has empirical data. The only thing he knows for sure is the amount of mass loss per unit of energy. (SL)
  • The RH meter in the Jan. 14 test was a Delta Ohm HD 37AB1347. Reader comment: "The sensor is based on capacitance, which should provide a good measure of the amount of water present." (SL)
  • Regarding the wet versus dry steam controversy in the Jan. 14 test: "When we run the reactor with water, not steam, the measured power is the same as when we produce steam and I deem this is the proof of the correct measurement made with steam. We made many tests with water and the operation with steam has just confirmed the same efficiency." (SL)
  • Not related to Mills. "My method and technology is not at all related with [Mills]. If you read my patent (go to http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com and click on Patent) and the description of the method you mentioned, there is no relationship at all." (SL)
  • Temperatures in the cell range from 150°C - 5000°C. (Rossi agrees he said this previously 2/10/2011) This has to be a misunderstanding. Ni melts at 1453°C.
  • Standard module consumed 500 W control current and produced 4 kW in 2010. (7/14/2010)
  • Over the course of development, 37 devices have “blown up.” (Rossi, 4/23/2011)
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:38:49 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:译文]
安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变 器件特性
google机器翻译


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器件特性
    15千瓦的反应堆电池(10千瓦的正式评估)的体积为1升左右。较小的4千瓦的反应堆细胞(2.5千瓦的正式评估)量是50毫升。
在2月10日的测试中,15千瓦的反应堆(10千瓦的正式评估)运行约18小时250千瓦时(李维斯)。(22passi.blogspot.com)小型设备安全操作。潜在的,由于反应不“秒杀”在启动和关闭的事实。
    1兆瓦(热)设备,将许多较小的勾结在一起的。它原本计划到50 20千瓦(罗西,2010/3/26)模块,再后来126。130 10千瓦机组,其中30人在待机状态下举行,以取代或扩大旧的功率下降。此外,他们中的一些有额外的模块,可又拉又重新推动不中断的电力生产。截至2011年4月,他们现在计划用4千瓦(小)300单位。
    功率密度模块作为一个整体,包括集装箱,是1 W/cm3。(罗西,3/28/2010)
    一公升的反应器(不包括其他组件的体积)的功率密度可以高得多。
    这些细胞(“模块” - 罗西)被设计为在串联和并联连接。(SL版本)
    类似传统锅炉的维护和操作。(SL“结构正常锅炉”的评论)
    一个20千瓦的模块有一个20升的体积和重量为30公斤。(罗西,2010/3/26)
    E-CAT反应堆单位的最小功率是目前2.5千瓦,与目前的设计和工程。更小的单位,可在未来的工程。
    这些细胞是由不锈钢制成。使用不锈钢,不包括任何铜。罗西在他的博客发布使用钢材的确切类型。不锈钢细胞在迷你罗西单位,是在一个较大的铜管。冷却水流量的细胞周围的墙壁上。
    该设备不会产生伽玛射线逃离的屏蔽,除了比背景略有增加(罗西SL)设备产生大量的伽马射线爆发,当它启动。(塞拉尼)的矛盾
    该设备生产的100 keV和300 keV的颗粒。(罗西 - 艾弗森报告)
    有没有电离辐射检测反应堆外。(6月13日)
设备不会产生放射性核灰。至少,没有发现放射性核灰机操作后的第二天(罗西,NyTeknik,2011年3月18日)。有可能在操作过程中的中间放射性产品。“我们不能够知道不稳定的原子反应堆的运作过程中产生的,但我们可以分析的操作后留下的粉末组成:在这种粉,我们没有发现不稳定的元素。”(SL)
    该设备需要1厘米厚的铅屏蔽,大概安全。据由Focardi设计。屏蔽经常被报道为2厘米厚。(6月13日)。
    控制盒包含5个简单的PLC控制的电阻炉,重达7公斤。(李维)
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器件工作程序
    最低工作温度为400°C。(SL版本)
    最佳工作温度为600°C。(来源不明)
    H在细胞的气体压力为25巴(360磅)(埃森和Kullander)
    电阻炉的效果被触发。有五年在15千瓦的设备。
    该反应是调制电阻炉。氢的压力,也是一个重要因素。
    在高功率电阻炉用于触发反应,然后将减少用电量,以维持反应。在2月10日的测试中,1000瓦引发的反应,和80瓦保持它。
    电源可连续调节,从0到100%“调整预热输入。(罗西,2011年4月16日)
    氢气压力可能也发挥了作用,调节功率。未解答的问题(见下文)。
    反应可以自我维持的电阻加热器关闭。这是在测试与U.博洛尼亚的教授初步完成。(SL版本)*然而,这种模式不推荐,因为它是不安全的,它是难以解渴的反应。有一个“爆炸的危险”(SL版本)。该装置是固有安全“。如果违反安全规则的反应堆淬火]” (SL)的矛盾
    为了确保安全,罗西喜欢电子控制,而不是外部供电设备本身的热电或蒸汽涡轮发电机供电。
    投入产出比高达200,在最近的测试中一直在16千瓦,持续,80瓦,超过1600,在130千瓦爆裂。这个比例是“总是超过6”(SL版本)。(Footnote.我不认为此设备输入/输出的比例是有意义的 - 罗思韦尔)
    该设备将需要维修和新的催化剂,每半年。
    镍和H消耗皮克(SL版本)
    10千瓦的实际消费约0.1克的镍氢每小时0.01。这是“镍的质量,你需要在反应堆”,但并非所有这实际上反应。“效率非常低,由于概率的问题。” (SL)
    镍晶格可以在一定程度上被打乱。(SL:“镍晶格的完整性必须保持不损害,破坏,融化阻碍的结果,它是没有必要在一定范围内吗?”。)
    淬火效果可以用下面的方法:
    凡注射用电解氢,停止电解切断氢气供应。(Focardi)
德气体的细胞。
    增加流量冷却镍粉和催化剂。(这可能有许多工作要做快,诱导热休克 - 罗思韦尔)
    一个很小的比例(2%至3%)的氘将淬火反应。
    piantelli报告说,他采用N停止与他的大容量的镍氢设备的失控反应。罗西说,他还没有尝试这样做。
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催化剂的特性
    该催化剂是由两部分组成。
    元素是铜,铁或贵金属。它不插入气体一起H.(无铜,7/2/2010)
    该催化剂是没有放射性。
    该催化剂是不贵。
    该催化剂是雷尼镍
    额外的元素是不是在气相。
    镍处理系统,增加镍10%的成本。
    大部分镍在反应过程中蜕变为Cu。
    铜略有非自然的同位素比值。(罗西)铜的比率是自然的。(埃森)的矛盾
    铁镍催化剂,无论从嬗变或污染是不明确的。
    起始原料的镍同位素富集,一些革命性的技术,花费少。(罗西,2011年4月8日)说:“我们使用普通的镍的同位素组成,所以是正常的。” (罗西SL)“我们使用镍在其同位素组成自然。” (罗西,二零一零年六月二十日),镍同位素是正常的,不丰富。(埃森)的矛盾
    热力的生产改变了镍同位素,根据U。帕多瓦(7/2/2010)与SIMS的研究
“我们认为,所有镍参加的反应,即使一些同位素,应该更有效。” (7/14/2010)“[O]唯一一句镍62和64的反应。” (2011年3月25日)的矛盾
    (Footnote.镍被称为“催化剂”,但可能用词不当,因为在其他冷聚变系统不使用它了。罗思韦尔)
    安德烈·罗西曾表示,他们知识的最重要的位之一,是如何产生的氢原子,从原子氢,并适当地使用它。
    钨作为一种可能的催化剂 - 氢原子被称为被加热钨和类似合金产生。这是用来在H +和H型生产在19世纪以前,氢原子喷灯。有人指出,罗西在接受记者采访时,该催化剂的功能,打破从它的自然状态下的H2 H +和H型后,释放多余的热量和辐射镍吸收在LENR过程中的“质子的氢。原子焊枪早已知道有异常的热效应,火炬的火焰不会燃烧的触摸,但可以蒸发材料以及过去的3200C。
    这可能是与前面提到的文章Hot高尔夫球- http://peswiki.com/index.php/Dir ... al_Nuclear_Reaction
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未解答的问题
    罗西不会解决以下问题:
    两个元素的身份加入到镍。
    载入中,或“比氢原子,金属原子”,达到首选的操作系统级(SL)
    原因自持操作是困难和危险的,“很难解释不违反我的保密限制。”
    “我们给[无]信息在反应堆旁镍,H”(SL)(不是真的!)
    Q:你控制的能源生产氢气压力,通过调整利率?答:实际上,它是更为复杂。你要求保密的问题。对不起。(罗西,2010年2月16日)
    问:是主要的反应表面或散装?答:这是一个“工业秘密”。(2010/8/30)
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杂项
    组装电池和镍催化剂的工作是危险的,需要的专业知识。
    罗西没有一个精确的理论,但他的经验数据。他知道肯定是唯一的每单位能源的质量损失的金额。(SL版本)
    在1月14日测试的相对湿度米增量欧姆高清37AB1347的。读者评论:“基于电容传感器,它应该提供一个良好的水量目前的措施。” (SL版本)
    就在1月14日测试的湿与干蒸争议:“当我们与水,没有蒸汽运行的反应堆,测得的功率时,我们产生蒸汽,我认为这是相同的,是作出正确的测量证明蒸汽。我们做了许多与水蒸汽运行测试刚刚证实了同样的效率。“ (SL版本)
    不相关的米尔斯。“不是我的方法和技术是所有相关[米尔斯]。如果你读了我的专利(去http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com点击专利)和描述的方法提到的,有没有在所有的关系。“ (SL版本)
    在单元格区域温度从150°C - 5000°C。(罗西同意,他说这以前2/10/2011)这是一种误解。镍融化在1453°C。
    在2010年消耗500瓦的控制电流,并产生4千瓦的标准模块。(7/14/2010)
    在发展的过程中,有37设备“炸毁了。”(罗西,2011年4月23日)
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:39:57 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:专利]
安德烈罗西的ECAT镍氢冷聚变专利
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http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/zh/detail.jsf?docId=WO2009125444&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCT+Biblio

国际局存档的最新著录事项




公布号:
  
WO/2009/125444
  
国际申请号:
  
PCT/IT2008/000532
公布日:
15.10.2009
国际申请日:
04.08.2008
已提出第二章要求:
  
09.11.2009











IPC:
C01B 3/00 (2006.01), C01B 6/02 (2006.01)
申请人:
PASCUCCI MADDALENA [IT/IT]; Via Ezio, 24 1-00192 ROMA (IT) (For All Designated States Except US).
ROSSI, Andrea [IT/IT]; (IT) (For US Only)
发明人:
ROSSI, Andrea; (IT)
代理人:
CICOGNA, Franco; UFFICIO INTERNAZIONALE BREVETTI DOTT. PROF. FRANCO CICOGNA VIA VISCONTI Dl MODRONE 14/A 1-20122 MILANO - ITALY (IT)
优先权数据:
MI2008A 000629

09.04.2008

IT

标题
(EN) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTIONS
(FR) PROCéDé ET APPAREIL POUR RéALISER DES RéACTIONS EXOTHERMIQUES ENTRE LE NICKEL ET L'HYDROGèNE
摘要:

(EN)A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.
(FR)L'invention concerne un procédé et un appareil permettant de réaliser une réaction exothermique hautement efficace entre des atomes de nickel et d'hydrogène dans un tube, de préférence, bien que cela ne soit pas indispensable, un tube métallique rempli d'une poudre de nickel et chauffé à une température élevée, de préférence, bien que cela ne soit pas indispensable, de 150 à 5000° C. Dans l'appareil selon l'invention, l'hydrogène est injecté dans le tube métallique contenant une poudre de nickel hautement pressurisée, à une pression, de préférence mais non nécessairement, de 2 à 20 bars.
[翻译:原文-->中文]

指定国家 :
AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PG, PH, PL, PT, RO, RS, RU, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, ZA, ZM, ZW.
African Regional Intellectual Property Org. (ARIPO) (BW, GH, GM, KE, LS, MW, MZ, NA, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW)
Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM)
European Patent Office (EPO) (AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, LV, MC, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR)
African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI) (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG).

公布语言:
English (EN)
申请语言:
English (EN)



说明书
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CARRYING OUT NICKEL AND HYDROGEN EXOTHERMAL REACTIONS
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for carrying out nickel and hydrogen exothermal reactions, and has been stimulated by the well known requirement of finding energy sources alternative to fossil sources, to prevent atmospheric carbon dioxi.de contents from being unnecessarily increased.
For meeting the above need non polluting energy sources should be found which do not involve health risks, are economically competitive with respect to oil sources susceptible to be easily discovered and exploited and naturally abundant.
Many of the above alternative energy sources have already been explored and operatively tested even on an industrial scale, and comprise biomasses, solar energy used both for heating and photovoltaic electric generation purposes, aeolian energy, fuel materials of vegetable or agricultural nature, geothermal and sea wave energy and so on. A possible alternative to natural oil, is the uranium-fission nuclear energy. However, yet unresolved problems affect nuclear energy such as great safety and waste material processing problems, since, as is well known, radioactive waste materials remain dangerously active for thousands or millions of years, with consequent great risks for persons living near radioactive waste disposal-off places.
To the above the fact should also be added that, at present, a, nuclear fusion based on a laser actuated inertial confining method does not allow to make efficient power systems. The above drawbacks are also true for deuterium-tritium fusion processes, as shown by the operating times estimated for the ITER project, which should within the year 2025 should allow to construct power systems according to the so-called DEMO project to make, within the year 2035, the first fusion power station.
In fact, up to now, the so-called "cold" fusion, after an early announcement by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989 (M. Fleischmann, M. Hawkins, S. Pons: Journal Electroanal. Chem. , 261,301-1989), notwithstanding several exploiting attempts on a world-wise scale, has not provided useful and reliable systems capable of generating energy for normal, industrial or domestic applications . The most intelligent work performed in the fusion field, which work has been accurately studied by the present inventor for practicing his invention, is a study of Prof. Sergio Focardi, (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Univerita di Bologna), and Prof. Francesco Piantelli, (Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Siena) as disclosed in the following bibliographic documents :
S. Focardi, F. Piantelli: Produzione di energia e reazioni nucleari in sistemi Ni-H a 4000C, Atti della Conferenza Nazionale sulla politica energetica in Italia, Universita di Bologna, 18-19 aprile 2005.
- S. Focardi, R. Habel, F. Piantelli: Anomalous heat production in Ni-H systems, Nuovo Cimento Vol. 107, pp 163-167, 1994
- S. Focardi, V. Gabbiani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, S. Veronesi: Large excess in heat production in Ni-H systems, Nuovo Cimento Vol. Ill A pp. 1233-1241, 1998
A. Battaglia, L. Daddi, S. Focardi, V. Gabbiani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli, P. G. Sona, S. Veronesi: Neutron emission in Ni-H systems, Nuovo Cimento Vol. 112 A pp 921-931, 1999
- S. Focardi, V. Gabbiani, V. Montalbano. F. Piantelli, S. Veronesi: On the Ni-H systems, Asti Workshop in Hydrogeldeuterium loaded metals, pp 35-47, 1997
E.G. Campari, S. Focardi, V. Gabbiani, V. Montalbano. F. Piantelli, E. Porcu, E. Tosti, S. Veronesi: Ni-H systems, Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Cold Fusion, pp 69-74, 2000. The present inventor, moreover, has also accurately studies the following related patents: US-6,236,225, US-5, 122, 054, US-H466, US-4, 014 , 168 , US-' 5,552,155, US-5, 195, 157, US-4 , 782, 303, US-4, 341, 730, US-A-20010024789. An analysis of the above mentioned references shows that :
1- all experiments performed based on cold fusion have not permitted to generate power in such an amount to be reliably and constantly exploited in industrial applications;
2- all the uranium based methods and systems have not up to now solved the problem of safely disposing of nuclear waste materials;
3- all the nuclear fusion based methods and systems have not been shown as capable of generating significative amounts of energy while allowing the fusion process to be safely monitored;
4- all the magnetic and inertial confining based methods and systems, such as the plasma fusion method, cannot be properly economically managed; and
5- the catalyzed fusion of negative muons based methods and systems cannot be used because of the muon short life.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, the aim of the present invention is to provide a method allowing to produce energy in an economic, convenient, reliable and repetitive manner, without generating radiations and radioactive waste materials . Within the scope of the above mentioned aim, a main object of the invention is to provide such a method which can be carried out in small size systems, adapted to be easily controlled and allowing to heat individual places at an operating cost less than that of commercially available heating systems.
According to one aspect of the present invention, the above mentioned aim and objects, as well as yet other objects, which will become more apparent hereinafter, are achieved by a method and apparatus for carrying out a highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel atoms and hydrogen atoms, in a tube, preferably, though not exclusively made of a metal, filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature preferably, though not necessarily, from 150 to 5000C, by injecting hydrogen into said metal tube said nickel powder being pressurized, preferably, though not necessarily, to a pressure from 2 to 20 bars .
In applicant exothermal reaction the hydrogen nuclei, due to a high absorbing capability of nickel therefor, are compressed about the metal atom nuclei, while said high temperature generates internuclear percussions w,hich are made stronger by the catalytic action of optional elements, thereby triggering a capture of a proton by the nickel powder, with a conseguent transformation of nickel to copper and a beta+ decay of the latter to a nickel nucleus having a mass which is by an unit larger than that of the starting nickel.
The present inventor believes that in this reaction is possibly involved a capture of a proton by a nickel nucleus which is transformed into a copper nucleus with a consequent beta decay of the formed unstable copper (Cu 59 - 64) since the produced thermal energy is larger, as it will be thereinafter demonstrated, than the energy introduced by the electric resistance.
It is believed that the nickel nuclei are transformed to copper since the mass (energy) of the final status (copper isotope) is less than the overall mass (energy) of the starting status (nickel isotope + proton) .
The exothermal reaction thereon Applicant's invention is based differs from those adopted by prior searchers since the inventor has not tried to demonstrate .an emission of elementary particles supporting a validity of a theory, but he has exclusively tried to provide an amount of energy larger than the consumed energy amount, to just achieve a practical method and apparatus for generating an energy amount larger than the consumed energy, and this by exploiting nuclear energy generating processes starting from electrochemical energy. Thus, the inventive apparatus has been specifically designed for producing the above mentioned energy in a reliable, easily controllable, safe, repeatable manner, for any desired applications.
In particular, the inventive apparatus is coated by boron layers and lead plates both for restraining noxious radiations and transforming them into energy, without generating residue radiations and radioactive materials .
In this connection it is pointed out that all prior attempts to generate like types of energy, have brought to small energy amounts generating prototypes not suitable for a safe industrial use, because of the theoretical nature of the performed searches.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Thus, the aim of the present invention is to provide an energy generating apparatus adapted to operate in a reliable and repeatable manner and including a plurality of series and parallel connectable apparatus modules, thereby generating an impressively high energy amount by so bombarding a nickel atom by a hydrogen atom, to provide a large atomic mass loss copper atom to be transformed into energy, based on the Einstein' s equation, plus a beta decay energy of the radioactive copper atoms. The following discussion may be considered as valid for some (radioactive) Cu isotopes, but not for the two stable copper isotopes (Λ63Cu and Λ65Cu) which do not decay.
As the copper atom decays, an energy emitting positive beta decay occurs, according to the following equations:
P = N+ e+ + v, where
P = proton N = neutron
E+ = positron v = neutrino
The positron forms the electron antiparticle, and hence, as positrons impact against the nickel electrons, the electron-positron pairs are annihilated, thereby generating a huge amount of energy.
In fact, few grams of Ni and H would produce an energy amount equivalent to that of thousands oil tons, as it will become more apparent hereinafter, without pollutions, greenhouse effects, or carbon dioxide increases, nuclear and other waste materials, since the radioactive copper isotopes produced in the process will decay to stable nickel isotopes by beta + processes, in a very short time. For clearly understanding the following detailed discussion of the apparatus, it is necessary to at first consider that for allowing nickel to be transformed into stable copper, it is necessary to respect the. quantic laws. Accordingly, it is indispensable to use, for the above mentioned exothermal reactions, a nickel isotope having a mass number of 62, to allow it to transform into a stable copper isotope 62. All the other Ni isotopes, on the other hand, will generate unstable Cu, and, accordingly, a beta decay.
Considering that about 106 tons nickel for year are produced through the world and since, as it will be disclosed hereinafter in Table 1, 1 g nickel would generate an energy amount equivalent to that produced by 517 tons oil, thus the yearly produced nickel amount, assuming that only 1/10,000 generates nuclear processes, will provide
1,000,000,000,000*517/10000 = 51,700,000,000 (oil equivalent) ton per year.
And this without considering the fact that the yearly nickel production could be easily increased, depending on demand, and that, like mineral oil, nickel can be recovered and remelted from nickel scraps of steelwork and electronic applications.
Actually, nickel is one of the most abundant metals of the Earth crust.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
Further characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent hereinafter from the following detailed disclosure of a preferred, though not exclusive, embodiment of the invention, which is illustrated, by way of an indicative, but not limitative, example, in the accompanying drawings, where:
Figure 1 is a constructional diagram of the apparatus according to the present invention; Figure 2 is a picture, taken by a 1.400 x electronic microscope, showing the nickel powder (on a 1.400 x scale), withdrawn by the apparatus;
Figures 3 and 4 are electronic microscope diagrams related to the powder atomic composition, at the two points shown by the arrows in figure 2.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
With reference to the number references of the above mentioned figures, the apparatus according to the present invention comprises an electric resistance 1, enclosed in a metal tube 2, further including therein a nickel powder 3.
A solenoid valve 4 adjusts the pressure under which hydrogen 5 is introduced into the metal tube.
Both the temperature generated by the electric resistance or resistor and the hydrogen injection pressure can be easily adjusted either to constant or pulsating values. More specifically, the electric resistance, or other heat source, is switched off as the exothermal reaction generating energizing status is triggered. A thermostat will hold said heat source operating, depending on the temperature in the circuit. The assembly comprising said electric resistance and nickel holding copper tube is shielded from the outer environment by using, respectively from the inside to the outside: a) a jacket 7 including water and boron, or only boron b) a further lead jacket 8, which, optionally, though not necessarily, may be coated by a steel layer
9.
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:41:11 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:说明书]

The above mentioned coatings are so designed as to restrain all radiations emitted by the exothermal reaction and transform said radiation into thermal energy.
The heat generated by the particle decay and nuclear transformations will heat the primary fluid, comprising borated water, thereby said primary fluid, in turn, will exchange heat with the secondary circuit, in turn heated by said primary fluid and conveying the produced thermal energy to desired applications, such as electric power, heating, mechanical energy, and so on.
In the absence of a primary fluid, the fluid to be heated will exchange heat directly with the lead and steel jacket.
According to a further embodiment of the invention, the apparatus further comprises the following features. Nickel is coated in a copper tube 100, including a heating electric resistance 101, adjusted and controlled by a controlling thermostat (not shown) adapted to switch off said resistance 101 as nickel is activated by hydrogen contained in a bottle 107. A first steel-boron armored construction 102, coated by a second lead armored construction 103, protect both the copper tube, the hydrogen bottle connection assembly 106, and the hydrogen bottle or cylinder 107 , thereby restraining radiations through the overall radiation life, allowing said radiations to be transformed into thermal energy. On the outside of the lead armored construction, the copper reactor cooling water, circulates through a steel outer pipe assembly 105, and this conveyed to thermal energy using devices.
The above disclosed prototype can also be used as a heating module which, in a series and/or parallel coupling relationship with other like modules, will provide a basic core desired size and power heating systems .
A practical embodiment of the inventive apparatus, installed on October 16, 2007, is at present perfectly operating 24 hours per day, and provides an amount of heat sufficient to heat the factory of the
Company EON of via Carlo Ragazzi 18, at Bondeno
(Province of Ferrara) . For better understanding the invention, the main components of the above mentioned apparatus have been schematically shown in Table 2.
The above mentioned apparatus, which has not been yet publicly disclosed, has demonstrated that, for a proper operation, the hydrogen injection must be carried out under a variable pressure.
The electric resistance temperature controlling thermostat has been designed to switch off said electric resistance after 3-4 hours of operation, thereby providing self-supplied system, continuously emitting thermal energy in an amount larger than that initially generated by said electric resistance, which mode of operation is actually achieved by an exothermal reaction.
As it will be shown in a detailed manner in the following Table 1, it is possible to calculate that, supposing a full transformation, a mole, that is 58 g nickel, generate the same amount of energy obtained by burning about 30,000 tons of oil.
Figures 2-5 show data measured on January 30, 2008 which basically demonstrate that the invention actually provides a true nuclear cold fusion.
The photo of figure 2 , ( obtained by a 1.400 x electronic microscope) shows the nickel powder on a 1.400 x scale, as withdrawn from the apparatus: in particular said photo clearly shows the flake granules, greatly promoting an absorption of the hydrogen atoms by the nickel nuclei.
The two arrows in the figure show the two positions of the powder sample thereon the electronic microscope tests for detecting the powder atomic composition have been carried out.
The two graphs of figures 3 and 4 have been made by the electronic microscope of Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna, under the supervision of Prof. Sergio Focardi, on January 30, 2008, and are related to the powder atomic composition at the two above points of figure 2.
In particular, said graphs clearly show that zinc is formed, whereas zinc was not present in the nickel powder originally loaded into the apparatus said zinc being actually generated by a fusion of a nickel atom and two hydrogen atoms .
This demonstrates that, in addition to fusion, the inventive reaction also provides a nickel nucleus fission phenomenon generating lighter stable atoms.
Moreover, it has been found that, after having generated energy the used powders contained both copper and lighter than nickel atoms (such as sulphur, chlorine, potassium, calcium) .
This demonstrate that, in addition to fusion, also a nickel nucleus fission phenomenon generating lighter stable atoms occurs. It has been found that the invention fully achieves the intended aim and objects.
TABLE 1
Determining the energy produced by a nickel mol.
1 nickel mol = 58 g
Avogadro number 6.022 x 1023 mol"1 = number of nickel atoms in 58 g nickel.
The energy generated in each hydrogen capture process has been evaluated (for each nickel isotope) from the difference between the initial mass (nickel + hydrogen) and the reaction end product mass.
A reasonable estimate, considering the different values for the different isotopes, is 10 MeV electron (a MeV corresponds to a million electron-volts and is the energy measuring unit, as conventionally used in nuclear physics) .
Since 1 Mev is equivalent to a variation of mass of 1.78 x 10"30 kg, the mass variation corresponding to an energy emission of 10 Mev is 1.78 x 10"29 kg.
The mass loss corresponding to a transformation of an entire Ni mol can be calculated by multiplying the Avogadro number (6.022 x 1023) time the mass variation of the single reaction.
Thus is obtained (for 58 g Ni)
M= (6.022 x 1023) x 1.78 x 10~29 kg=1.07 x 10"5 kg From the Einstein equation we have
E = me2 where c is the light speed c = 3 x 108 m/s .
Thus, by replacing:
J=I.07 x 10"5 x (3 x 108)2 = 9.63 x 1011 J which can be approximated to 0.3 x 109 kcal (which can be approximated by defect to reserve) .
This is an energy equivalent to about 30,000 ton oil considering a pci of 10,000 kcal/kg for mineral oil; thus, 58 g nickel will generate the same energy as that provided by 30,000 ton oil, that is 517 tons/gram.
TABLE 2
List of materials used for making prototypes for experimentally testing the inventive apparatus Electric resistance: Frei, Brescia Thermoadjuster: Pic 16- cod. 1705- Frei Lead shields: Picchi Srl-Brugherio (Milan) Hydrogen: Linde Gas Italia, Arluno (Milan) Pressure reducer: Linde Gas Italia
Powder nickel: Gerli Metalli - Milan Boron: Danilo Dell'Amore SrI- Bologna Copper tube: Italchimici- Antezzate (Brescia) Laser beam temperature measuring device: Raytheon, USA
Pressure gauge: Elaborazione - Dipartimento di Fisica - Universita degli Studi di Bologna Neutron measuring device: Elaborazione Dipartimento di Fisica - Universita degli Studi di Bologna
Chemical-physical analyses: - Dipartimento di Fisica - Universita degli Studi Bologna.


说明书
开展镍氢放热反应的方法及器具

发明背景
本发明涉及到开展镍氢放热反应的方法和设备,并已众所周知寻找能源替代化石来源,以防止被不必要地增加大气二氧化碳dioxi.de内容要求刺激。
为满足上述需要的无污染能源,应不涉及的健康风险,是经济竞争力方面容易可以很容易地发现和利用自然丰富的油源。

上述替代能源的许多人已经探索和术后测试,即使是在产业规模,包括生物量,太阳能用于取暖和太阳能光伏发电的目的,风沙能源燃料的材料,蔬菜或农业性质,地热能和海洋波的能量等。一种可能的替代天然油脂,是铀裂变的核能。然而,尚未解决的问题,影响极大的安全和废料的处理问题,如核能,因为,众所周知,放射性废料仍然为数千或数百万年的危险主动与附近的放射性废物者造成很大的风险,处置过的地方。

上述事实,也应增加,目前,核聚变,激光驱动惯性的围法不允许进行有效的电力系统。上述弊端,是真正的氘-氚聚变过程,估计为国际热核实验堆项目的工作时间,在2025年应该允许根据所谓的示范项目,使电力系统建设所示,在2035年,第一核聚变发电站。
事 实上,到现在为止,所谓的“冷”融合弗莱希曼和庞斯早在1989年公布后,(M.弗莱希曼,M.霍金斯,与庞斯。杂志Electroanal化学,261,301-1989)尽管一些开发在世界上规模的尝试,并没有提供有用和可靠的系统能够正常,工业或住宅的应用产生能量。最聪明的,准确的工作已经由目前的发明者,研究实践他的发明,在融合领域进行的工作是教授塞尔吉奥·Focardi,(Dipartimento DI Fisica戴尔Univerita博洛尼亚),教授弗朗切斯科Piantelli的研究,(Dipartimento DI Fisica戴尔Universita迪锡耶纳)下列书目文件中披露:
S。focardi,F. piantelli:能源生产和镍氢系统的核反应,在400 0,意大利,博洛尼亚大学,2005年4月18日至19日在全国能源政策会议。
- S. Focardi,R.哈贝尔,Piantelli号:异常热生产镍氢系统,诺沃Cimento卷。1994年,页163-167,(107)
- S. Focardi,:V. Gabbiani,V.蒙塔尔巴诺,F. Piantelli,与韦罗内西:热大量过剩生产镍氢系统,诺沃Cimento卷。病了1233-1241页,1998年
答:战斗中,L. 达迪,S. focardi,河谷 gabbiani,河谷 蒙塔尔巴诺,F. piantelli,PG索娜,S. 韦罗内西:镍氢系统中子发射,诺沃Cimento一个卷112页921-931,1999
- S. Focardi,五Gabbiani,五蒙塔尔巴诺。楼Piantelli,S.韦罗内西:在镍氢系统,阿斯蒂车间装金属Hydrogeldeuterium,页35-47,1997

如坎帕里,S. focardi,河谷 gabbiani,河谷 蒙塔尔巴诺。楼 piantelli,E. porcu,E. tosti,S. 韦罗内西:镍氢系统,8 日对冷聚变,第69-74页,2000年会议论文集。在目前的发明者,此外,有同样准确地研究以下相关专利:美-6,236.225,美-5,122,054,美的H466,美-4,014,168,美的“ 5552155,美-5,195, 157,US-4,782,303,US-4,341,730,美-A 20010024789。上述引用的分析表明:
1 - 所有实验进行基于冷聚变不允许产生在这样一个数量的权力,是可靠和不断利用在工业应用;
2 - 所有的铀为基础的方法和系统都达不到现在解决了安全处理核废料的问题;
3 - 所有的核聚变的方法和系统都没有被证明能产生有意义的能源,同时允许安全监控的融合过程中,要;
4 - 所有的磁性和惯性围的方法和系统,如血浆融合方法,不能得到适当的经济管理;
5 - 催化融合为基础的方法和系统的负μ介子不能使用,因为μ介子的寿命短。

本发明的概要
因此,本发明的目的是允许在经济,方便,可靠,重复性地生产能源,不会产生辐射和放射性废料,提供了一种方法。上述目标的范围内,对发明的主要目的是提供这种方法可以在小规模的系统进行了改编可以很容易地控制和允许个别地方在经营成本中加热不到的市售的加热系统。

根据本发明,上述目标和对象,以及其他对象,这将变得更加明显的以下的一个方面是实现的方法和仪器,开展了高效的镍原子和氢之间的放热反应原子,在管,最好,虽然不完全是由金属镍粉,填补最好加热到高温,虽然不一定,从150到500 0 C, 通过注入氢进入金属管,镍粉说正在施加压力,最好的,虽然不一定,从2至20条的压力。
在申请人放热反应的氢原子核由于镍为此高吸收能力,被压缩的金属原子的原子核,同时表示,高温产生的核打击乐W,高血压脑出血是由可选元素的催化行动,从而引发捕捉质子,镍粉,用镍铜conseguent改造和β+衰变后者有质量,这是由一个单位大于开始镍镍核。

目前的发明者认为,在这个反应可能参与捕获一个质子与随之而来的β衰变形成不稳定的铜(铜59 - 64)被转化成铜核镍核以来产生的热能较大,因为它会头昏眼花证明,比电阻引入的能量。

据认为,镍核转化,因为最终地位(铜同位素)的质量(能量)是小于起始状态(镍同位素十质子)的整体质量(能量)铜。

的放热反应,就此申请的发明是基于不同,因为发明者已不是试图证明之前的搜索采用的。1支持有效期理论的基本颗粒的排放,但他已经完全试图提供1能源的金额都比较大消耗的能源量,利用核能发电过程电化学能量起一种切实可行的方法和装置产生能量比消耗的能量大,这只是实现。因此,本发明的装置已专门设计一个可靠的,容易控制,安全,可重复的方式在上述能源生产,为任何所需的应用程序。

发明的仪器,尤其是涂硼层和铅板,同时抑制有害辐射,并转化为能源,不产生残留辐射和放射性物质。

在这方面,它指出,所有先前的尝试产生像类型的能源,带来了小的能源量,发电不是一个安全的工业用途的原型,因为执行的搜索的理论性。

本发明的概要
因 此,本发明的目的是提供能源发电设备,适应运行在一个可靠和可重复的方式,包括多个串联和并联连接的设备模块,从而产生了一个令人印象深刻的高能量,所以轰击镍原子一个氢原子,提供一个大的原子质量损失铜原子被转化为能量,根据爱因斯坦的方程,加上放射性铜原子的β衰变能量。下面的讨论中可能被视为有效(放射性)铜同位素,而不是为两个稳定的铜同位素(Λ 63Cu和Λ 65Cu)不衰减。

由于铜原子衰变,能量发光积极的β衰变时,按下列公式:
P = N + E + + V,其中
,P =质子ñ=中子
E + = V =中微子正电子

形成了电子的反粒子正电子,因此,正电子对镍电子的影响,正负电子对被消灭,从而产生巨大的能量。

事实上,几克的镍和H将产生的能量相当于数千万吨石油,因为它会变得更加明显以下,没有污染,温室效应,二氧化碳的增加,核能和其他废弃物的,因为放射性在这个过程中产生的铜同位素衰变到稳定的镍同位素测试+进程,在很短的时间。为清楚地了解以下设备的详细讨论,这是必须首先考虑的是让被转化成稳定的铜镍,它是必要的尊重。quantic法律。因此,它是必不可少的使用,上述放热反应,镍同位素质量数的62,允许它转化成一个稳定的铜同位素62。所有其他的镍同位素,另一方面,将产生不稳定的铜,和,因此,β衰变。

考虑约10 6万吨镍年通过世界以来,生产,因为它会被披露,在表1以下,1克的镍会产生能量相当于517万吨石油生产,从而年产镍量,假设只有1/10,000产生核过程,将提供
1,000,000,000,000 * 517/10000 = 517亿(油当量),每年每吨。

这可以很容易地增加,每年的镍产量,取决于需求,并没有考虑,如矿物油,镍,可以回收和从钢铁及电子应用的镍废料重熔。
事实上,镍是地壳中最丰富的金属之一。
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:42:05 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:图纸简介]



图纸简介
本发明进一步的特点和优势将变得更加明显以下的首选,但不是排他性的,体现的发明,这说明从以下详细披露方式的指示,但没有限制性,例如,在随附图纸,其中:
图1是根据本发明的装置施工图,图2是一幅画,采取由1 1.400 x电子显微镜,呈现出的镍粉(1.400 X比例上),由仪器撤回;
图3和4是有关粉末原子组成,在图2中的箭头所示的两个点,电子显微镜图。

的首选体现的说明
参照上述数字的数量引用,根据本发明的装置包括电阻,进一步包括其中镍粉3封闭在一个金属管2。
电磁阀4,调整的压力下,氢5成金属管引入。
电阻或电阻和氢气喷射压力的同时产生的温度可以很容易地调整到恒定或脉动值。更具体地说,电阻,或其他热源,为放热反应产生激状态触发关闭。一个温控器将举办表示热源运行,取决于电路中的温度。大会由说拿着铜管的电阻和镍被屏蔽通过从外部环境,分别从内到外:a)在7夹克,包括水和硼,或只硼二)进一步铅护套8, ,选择性,虽然不一定,可涂钢层9。

上述涂料的设计以抑制放热反应所发出的辐射和改造辐射成热能。
粒子衰变和核转换产生的热量将热流体,包括硼酸水,从而说,主液,反过来,将与二次电路交换热量,加热反过来说主要的流体输送所产生的热能所需的应用程序,如电力,供热,机械能源,等等。
在主液的情况下,被加热的流体换热直接与铅和钢套。

据该项发明的进一步体现,该仪器还包括以下功能。镍涂在铜管100,包括加热电抗101,调整和由控股恒温控制(未显示)适应关掉说,阻力101,如镍氢是由一瓶107中激活。第一硼钢装甲建设102,涂上第二铅103装甲建设,保护铜管,氢气瓶连接装配106,氢气瓶或缸107,从而抑制通过整体的辐射寿命辐射,使说辐射转化为热能。装甲建设铅,铜反应堆冷却水外,钢外管总成105通过循环,这转达热能利用设备。

上述披露的原型,也可以用作加热模块,在一个系列和/或其他类似模块的并行耦合关系,将提供一个基本的核心所需的大小和电力供暖系统。

本发明的设备安装,2007年10月16日,一个实际的体现,是目前完美,每天24小时运作,并提供足够的热量来加热工厂国贸公司通过蒙特卡罗男孩18岁,在Bondeno
(费拉拉省)。为更好地理解发明,上述设备的主要组成部分已被示意图表2所示。

上述仪器,尚未公开披露,已经证明,氢注入一个正常运作,必须进行下一个变量的压力。电阻温度控制恒温已关掉3-4个小时的手术后表示电阻,从而为自我提供的系统,不断散发热能金额大于最初产生的电阻说,哪种模式操作实际上是通过一个放热反应。
因为它会在详细地在下面的表1所示,它是可以计算,假设一个完整的改造,有痣,这是58克镍,产生获得相同数量的能量,通过烧油约30000吨。

图2-5数据显示,1月30日,2008基本上证明该发明实际上提供了一个真正的冷聚变核测量。
照片,图2(1 1.400 x电子显微镜获得)显示1 1.400 X比例从设备撤回,镍粉说,在特定的照片清楚地表明了片状颗粒,极大地促进了氢原子吸收镍核。
图中的两个箭头显示的粉末样品就此检测粉末原子组成的电子显微镜测试已经进行了两个位置。
数字3和4两个图形已经由电子显微镜的Dipartimento DI Fisica戴尔Universita博洛尼亚,的教授塞尔吉奥Focardi监督下,于2008年1月30日,在粉末原子组成上面的图2点。
特别表示,图清楚地表明,锌形成锌,而不是在最初加载到设备的镍粉说锌被实际上是由镍原子和两个氢原子聚变产生。

这表明,除了融合,创造性的反应,也提供了一个镍产生更轻的稳定原子的核裂变现象。此外,它已被发现后产生的能量,使用粉末中铜和镍原子(如硫,氯,钾,钙)比打火机。这表明,除了融合,也有镍产生更轻的稳定原子发生核裂变现象。人们已经发现,发明完全达到预期的目的和对象。

表1
确定由镍摩尔产生的能量。
1摩尔= 58克镍
Avogadro数6.022×10 月23日摩尔“1 =镍原子数量在58克镍。
每个氢捕获过程中产生的能量,已评估(每个镍同位素)从初始质量(镍氢),反应最终产品的质量之间的差异。

考虑不同的同位素不同的价值取向,是一个合理的估计,10 MeV电子(1兆电子伏,相当于一百万电子伏,是能源计量单位,作为常规用于核物理)。

自1兆电子伏,相当于30公斤“的质量为1.78×10的变化,质量变化,相应的10兆电子伏的能量排放是1.78 x 10 29公斤。

可以计算出相应的改造整个镍摩尔质量损失乘以Avogadro数(6.022×10 23)的单一反应时间质量变化。

从而得到(58克镍)
M =(6.022×10 23)×1.78×10 29公斤= 1.07×10 “5公斤从爱因斯坦方程,我们有
=我2,其中c是光速C = 3×10 8米/秒。
因此,通过更换:
J = I.07×10 “ 5 ×(3×10 8)2 = 9.63×10 11 j这可近似为0.3×10 9千卡(可近似缺陷储备)。

这是一个能量相当于约30,000吨油,考虑到矿物油10000大卡/公斤PCI;因此,58克的镍会产生油30000吨,即517吨/克提供的能量相同。
表2

发明仪器的电阻实验测试原型使用的材料清单:弗雷,布雷西亚Thermoadjuster:图16 - 鳕鱼。1705 - 弗雷铅屏蔽:皮基SRL-BRUGHERIO氢(AC米兰):林德气体(AC米兰)意大利,Arluno减压器:意大利林德气体

镍粉:Gerli金属 - 米兰硼:达尼洛爱斯里兰卡博洛尼亚铜管:Italchimici Antezzate(布雷西亚)激光束温度测量装置:美国雷声公司,

压力表的发展 - 物理系 - 大学博洛尼亚中子测量设备的加工物理系 - 博洛尼亚大学
化学,物理分析: - 物理系 - 博洛尼亚大学大学。



权利要求书
CLAIMS
1. A method for carrying out an isothermal reaction of nickel and hydrogen, characterized in -that said method comprises injecting hydrogen into a metal tube filled by a nickel powder, even of nanometric dimensions, or nickel granules or bars, in a high temperature and pressurized hydrogen gas saturated environment, thereby generating energy. 2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that in said method catalyzer materials are used.
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that said high temperature is preferably from 150 to 5000C. 4. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that said hydrogen is injected into said nickel powder filled metal tube at a pressure preferably from 2 to 20 bars.
5. An apparatus for carrying out an exothermal reaction by a method according to claim 1, characterized in that said apparatus comprises a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a set temperature, hydrogen being further injected into said metal tube. 6. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said nickel powder contains catalyzer materials.
7. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said hydrogen is injected into said tube under a non-constant pulsating pressure.
8. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said temperature is variable.
9. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said nickel powder filled metal tube is coated, on an outside thereof, by a jacket of water and boron, or steel and boron, and by a lead layer.
10. An apparatus according to claim 9, characterized in that said lead layer is coated by a steel layer.
11. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said apparatus comprises a steel pipe therethrough a flow of water, or other fluid, is caused to flow, said steel pipe being anempted in a heat exchanging relationship with said metal tube.
12. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said nickel powder is a nickel isotope powder.
13. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said nickel powder is replaceable by a copper powder. 14. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said apparatus is an apparatus module susceptible to be series and/or parallel coupled with like apparatus modules.
15. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that said exothermal reaction is a multiple exothermal reaction, adapted to provide different atoms depending on an amount of protons interacting with nickel nuclei.
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-5-3 00:43:08 | 显示全部楼层
[twow_chaptitle:反应堆原型]



安德烈·罗西在早期(1970)他的垃圾燃料反应堆的原型面前

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Rossi_E-cat_concept_由PES的小型家用概念设计

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安德烈·罗西的E-CAT镍氢冷聚变专利文件:


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