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约翰.威乐尔.科利
分子跳舞的地方 第一个十年

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本帖最后由 火凤凰 于 2013-9-1 18:28 编辑

第二章: 分子跳舞的地方 第一个十年

     一个铁的分子,或一个气体的分子,或者头脑中的任何物质的分子 都是由一种基础的物质组成--以太
                                                                                                      --- Clara Bloomfield-Moore Keely and  his Discoveries, Aerial Navigation, 1893
      以太是什么,没有人知道。
                                                                                                      --- Thomas H. Burgoyne, The Light of Egypt, 1900
        

        With the funds obtained through the sale of stock, Keely began the construction of a
much larger multiplicator with which to decompose or disintegrate water, and with the
vapor obtained he promised to run an engine. The multiplicator became a huge
structure, weighting 80,000 lbs. and costing $60,000. Although the device was crude
and unsatisfactory, the machine served another purpose; demonstrations were given to
"satisfy popular clamor and boom the stock of the company." Its shares rose
considerably and were bought and sold in the stock markets throughout the United
States. Keely was by now one of the most talked-of men in the country, and thousands of
people visited his workshop at 1422 N. Twentieth Street, admirers as well as scoffers
and sensation seekers.
       用股票销售所的资金,科利开始建造了一个更大的分解水的放大装置, 用这里产生的水汽去推动引擎运转。 放大装置变成了一个巨大的结构, 重达80,000磅,耗费60,000$.  虽然这个装置是简陋的,不令人非常满意的, 但是这个装置有另外一个目的。 就是为了给公共大众看的需求和提升股票价格舆论要求,给出了展示品。理所当然,股票涨了,他的股票在整个美国都被买来卖去。科利是那时候整个国家谈论最多的人。成千上万的人参观了科利的工厂,在1422 N,第20大街。仰慕者和嘲讽者以及探求者等一样多。

      But with fame came scorn; with belief, disbelief and rebuttal. Keely would meet
his first major setbacks in 1875. Scientific American published a scathing article in
which it was alleged that he and Collier were nothing more than frauds, "whose chief
purpose appears to be the wriggling of money out of silly people." Keely replied in
writing that he had by, "the introduction of atmospheric air into my machine, a limited
quantity of natural water direct from the hydrant at no greater than the hydrant
pressure, and the machine itself, which is simply a mechanical structure" produced,
"by a simple manipulation of the machine, a vaporic substance, at one expulsion of a
volume of ten gallons, having an elastic energy of 10,000 pounds to the square inch."
     但伴随着出名而来的麻烦, 相信的,不相信的以及辩驳的。科利遇到了他的第一个主要的麻烦在1875年。《科学美国人》出版了一篇非常尖锐的文章,它声称科利和Collier 就是骗子。
”他们的主要目的就是骗取穷苦老百姓的钱。“   科利回复了:”大气中的空气引进我的机器,很少量的从水龙头中获得的不高于水龙头里的压力的水, 和一个机械结构的机器本身“ ”通过机器里面的一个简单的放大后,一个气态的物质,有10加仑体积的气体被排出, 有着可调控的10,000磅的压力在每平方英寸的面积上“

    Collier wrote a long letter in return, including several statements by witnesses of
Keely's demonstrations. Amongst these was the statement from G. F. Glocker, an
employee in charge of the tool room for 26 years at the Port Richmond Iron Works in
Philadelphia. Glocker had constructed the multiplicator for Keely "which he operated
on the 10th of November, 1874." Furthermore, Glocker stated mat "in said
multiplicator, there are no secret chambers or recesses in which chemicals or
compressed air could be contained, and no spaces not fully accessible to a stream of
water passed through the apparatus; further, that, in said apparatus, there are no pistons
or moving parts other than valves. I have also constructed for Mr. Keely a vertical
direct-acting double cylinder engine, having cylinders of 3 inches bore and 3 inches
stroke, and a flywheel 24 inches in diameter and 4 inches face, weighing 2,000 pounds,
which engine I have seen rotated at a speed of not less than 300 revolutions per minute
with vapor generated in said multiplicator."
   Collier也写了一封长长的回信,包含了几个科利的见证人的证词。  他们中间有叙述到:G. F. Glocker,一个一个工具厂的雇员,在费城的一个钢铁工厂有26年的人。G. F. Glocker已经建造了一个放大的装置为科利。 1874年11月10日,科利操作过的。 而且G. F. Glocker叙述,在放大装置里没有什么秘密地方或可以放置化学物品或压缩空气的暗格, 根本就没有水汽管穿过结构的空间。而且出了阀门外没有活塞和其他移动部件。 我已经为科利先生造了一个垂直运动的双缸引擎,有3英寸和3英寸行程气缸孔,和一个飞轮直径24英寸和4英寸的脸,重量达2,000磅, 那个引擎以不低于每分钟300转的速度由放大装置的气体推动旋转。

   All this was published in the Scientific American; nevertheless, the compressed
air story would follow Keely doggedly in his shadow for the rest of his life and
beyond. In the meantime, articles in the press rapidly grew in number and news of his
invention was being published by most of the leading newspapers in the country.
One newspaper printed a long article mentioning some of Keely's plans for the
commercial use of his inventions: "Mr. Keely says that the first public exhibition will
be upon the Pennsylvania Railroad, when he proposes to take a train from this city to
New York and return. He will have the 'generator' stationed at West Philadelphia, fill
the 'receiver' which accompanies the engine and take vapor enough to draw twenty
cars to New York and back. The passage of the train will be silent. There will be no
cinders, no escaping steam, or dropping of coals to set fire to bridges. The engine will
be smaller than those now in use, but will be of greater horsepower. He says that the
generator can either be carried on the train or left at a depot, according to the wishes
of the engineer. It is small and compact and takes up very little room. For street cars,
as a motive power, this invention, it is claimed, will undoubtedly become popular.
  所有的这些都登在了科学美国人的报刊上, 然而压缩气体的故事却顽强的伴随着科利在他的后半生甚至以后。 同时,关于他的发明各种文章快速的出版在头条新闻上。一份报纸出版了一篇长文章关于科利的发明的商业化的用途:” 科利先生说,第一个公共的展示将在宾夕法尼亚铁路上。 他打算拖着火车从这里到纽约,并且返回来。 他将有引擎安装在费城西部,装上“receiver”去拖20辆小汽车到纽约并返回。“receiver 是组合了引擎和气的结构。   火车的车厢将是安静的, 没有煤灰,没有泄漏的蒸汽,或者煤落到桥上使桥燃烧的危险。 这个引擎将是比现在还要小,但却拥有更大的马力。 他说这个引擎不但能装在火车上也能放在仓库里,完全按照工程师的想法来。 它将是更小的更精简的占用很少的空间。对于街上的小汽车,作为动力,这个发明,就像所声称的一样,毫无疑问将变得很大众化。
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